Tools: PROB 11/324/368 Will of Sir George Smith 06 July 1667

From MarineLives
Jump to: navigation, search

PROB 11/324/368 Will of Sir George Smith 06 July 1667

PROB 11/324 Carr 59-116 Will of Sir George Smith 06 July 1667[1]

Editorial history

30/11/11, CSG: Restructured page

Sir George Smith profile

Sir George Smith was the son of the eponymous George Smith, a London merchant and grocer, to whom he was apprenticed, finishing his apprenticeship in the late 1640s.[2] Through his father, Sir George Smith gained the freedom of the English East India Company in 1647. Described as "George Smith, servant to George Smith", he paid ten shillings into the poor box in return for his freedom.[3]

Sir George Smith was a close commercial colleague, and probably the commercial partner, of Sir William Vincent throughout the late 1640s and the whole of the 1650s, until the death of Sir William Vincent in 1661.[4] Both men were active in the Levant Company, as well as trading with the East Indies.

In the 1660s Sir George Smith and Sir William Ryder collaborated commercially with Sir George Oxenden in what may have been an informal partnership. No account books or partnership documents survive from either the probable partnership between Smith and William Vincent or the possible partnership with William Ryder.

It has been suggested by Steven Pincus that Sir George Smith was an anglican royalist, whatever that term may mean. He suggests that Smith was "known to harbor suspected Royalists during the 1650s" and claims that after the Restoration he was a "'chief officer' in the London militia aimed at putting down Dissenting tumults."[5]

Certainly, George Smith had good links to the court following the Restoration. Nevertheless, like many merchants during the Commonwealth period, he had contact with Presbyterian merchants and with state officials. Charles Longland mentions his name in a letter to John Thurloe, dated June 22nd, 1657, that Mr. George Smith has received settlement from Thurloe for a payment initiated by Thurloe's agent, Charles Longland, in Livorno.[6]

Woodhead, following Boyd, suggests that Sir George Smith married twice, his first wife being Katherine, and his second wife being Martha Swift, who outlived him.[7]

Two brothers-in-law can be identified: John Swift, a London merchant, who was the brother of his second wife, and Benjamin Glanville, also a London merchant. Only Benjamin Glanville was mentioned in Sir George Smith's will, since John Swift had died in the East Indies sometime between late 1663 and early 1666.

Sir George Smith died on June 30th, 1667, after an illness which lasted several months.

Sir William Ryder was inititally optimistic that Sir George Smith might recover, writing to Sir George Oxenden on April 16th, 1667:

I cannot replie unto yo:e severall lres w:ch I have rec:d from yo:w overland & by y:e Affrican, & to depend on my friend S:r George Smith, to advise yo:w I cannot who not muny dayes past was nie his end he being grone very weake & melancholly but meeting w:th a phesetion y:t lett him blood prevented his bleeding mire at nose & mouth stopped y:e refluxion, & he is now pretty Cherry intending, if possible to write yo:w heare w:ch I hope he will be able to complie w:th his good thoughts, y:t way[8]

Ryder wrote again on August 22nd, 1667, reporting that Sir George Smith's condition had worsened and that he had died on June 30th, 1667:

Our deere ffreind Sr George Smith...not many weeks affter [Ryder's previous letter dated April 16th, 1667] having had losses by sea & unkindness at home laid it soe neare to heart he waisted away & died ye last of June God in mercie fitt us all for our owne Change, I was at Gravesend w:n he deied preventing ye Insolent Dutch from Coming up ye river of theames but came up to his interment, w:ch was on ye 4th last month yt we e have both lost a deare loveing ffreind[9]

Suggested links

See Sir George Oxenden will
See PROB 11/331/110 Will of Sir William Ryder of Stepney, Middlesex 02 October 1669
See Sir William Vincent will

See Sir George Smith's house, Throgmorton Street, London

To do

(1) Check reason for stating in the Abstract and context for Sir George Smith that Benjamin Glanvill(e) was a brother-in-law of Sir George Smith - I suspect that the link was to Martha Smith (nee Swift), and that Benjamin Glanville was brother in law of Martha Swift through his own marriage ?to a Swift. Thus only indirectly would Benjamin Glanville be a "brother-in-law" of Sir George Smith

(2) Look at Boyd's entry on Sir George Snith at SOG, which seems to be the source of the alleged birthdate of 1615, and of some other information, which I have been unable to replicate from credible primary sources


IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN I Geo: Smith of London Knt. although sicke and weake in body nevertheless of perfect memory for the which I blesse God My Soule I bequeath into the hands of God my Maker father Sonne and Holy Ghost hoping through my Saviour Jesus Christ to receive free acceptance and pardon from my manifold Sinnes and infirmities, my Body I committ to the Earth to bee buried there wheresoever my Lot falls It is my earnest desire that I may bee interred very privately and positively not above 12 of my friends present (of which not one woman) the management of this I could heartily wish my worthy friend Sir Andrew King would undertake

ITEM I will and bequeath to my wife Dame Martha Smith according to the Laudable practice of the Citty of London a Third of my personal Estate Besides which I give her three hundred pounds Upon Condition shee freely submitts what by this my last Will and Testament shee is enjoyed hereto or else this Bequest is void

ITEM I will and ordaine my lo:(ving) daughter my sole Executrix of this my last Will and Testament I say my daughter Katherine Smith to bee guided and governed by my worthy friends S:r Andrew King and John Rushworth Esquire whome I earnestly intreate to take that trouble upon them as Overseers of this my last Will and Testament in the execution thereof to each of my Overseers I give 20sh. a peece to buy them Mourning Besides this none shall have mourning given them But such is my owne household

ITEM I give and bequeath to my Loving Brother M:r Bin: Glan[10] [11] the summe of One hundred pounds upon Condition that hee Surrender to my Executrix Katherine Smith All that Coppie Lande belonging to Blacknam which hee promist to her before hee went to Ostend[12] but did not

ITEM I will and bequeath to my worthy friend Jno: Rushworth Esquire One Hundred pounds I say 100 l. and to his beloved wife One hundred pounds more

ITEM I give to my Servant Mr John Bigsby out of that affection I owe him One hundred pounds with 20 sh more to make him a Morning And I also freely forgive that 24 l:18 sh: 5 d he is indebted to mee

ITEM I give and bequeath to my worthy friend Sir: Andrew King Fifty pounds to buy a Ring to wear for my sake Item I give and bequeath to my faithfull friend Cap:t Millett the summe of Fifty pounds to honnest mr Peeter Cooke [13] three pounds to buy him a Ring To Charles Porter Esq Ten Pounds The same I bequeath to my Worthy friend Consul(?) Clarke I say Ten pounds to my aff:t. friend Jno. Fenn Esq [14] Tenn pounds to Capt. Geo: Cock 10li for a Ring

ITEM I give and bequeath to my dutiful and faithfull Servt. the summe of Two hundred pounds and charge my Executrix to be carefull of that shee wants for nothing whilst shee lives I meane my Srvt. ?Mercy (Or, ??Mary) Chrish the breeding upp of my daughter Katherine Smith I leave to Worthy Madam Rushworth wishing Keate not to take it as a slight favour but to the contrary to studdy requitall to the thought and deed [15] To Dame Rebecca Vincent I bequeath Tenn pounds And to my Godsonn One hundred pounds I say to Charles Vincent at his age of 21 Whereas upon the marriage of my wife I had by her in Portion or Dower 50l per Ann. the other moeity I did purchase for her 2 Sisters my request is that my wife may peaceably returne her ½ parte and my Executrix the other All the Jewells and Pearles my wife hath hath bine presents with my owne money therefore I intreat that care may be taken that shee may not bee defrauded The councill and direction of my 2 Overseers I Intreat do the greatest difficulty of all, I meane my daughter Kate Smith

ITEM I give and bequeath to the Governors of Christ Church for the use of the poore Children there Fifty pounds

ITEM I give and bequeath to M:r ffrances Williamson [16] for the use of his Children Fower hundred pounds my debts being first paid in which I intreat Mr John Biggs to bee very expeditious in ?respect to that Legacy after my Death I doe not think it Convenient to continue House keeping (?) in Finsbury only for a short season which I leave to the wisdome of my Overseers IF my Daughter Katherine Smith should die without issue In such case I leave that Land at ??Blachnasse in Suffolk to the Eldest Sonne of John Rushworth Esquire then living for want of that Sonne to Mr Rushworth himselfe

ITEM I gve and bequeath to my hon:ble friend Sir James Modyford 40 l. to the Lady Modyford I give 40s to that purpose to Madm. Slaning to that purpose 40s.

I thought to have added to this Will many other Legacies but that my great distress will not permitt I may happily doe if something a part and add to my Will

the Lord God fitt mee for the heavens where there [is] nothing but true Joye for evermore The Great God of Heaven blesse the King and Kingdome and give him true Councellors

This is my last Will and Testament Dated 31st May 1667 In the Nineteenth yeare of King Charles over England Scotland France and Ireland


Signed sealed published and declared to bee the last Will and Testament of Sr: Geo. Smith Kn:t. of London being contayned in three halfe Sheets of paper Each halfe sheet being signed and sealed with his owne hand and Seale In the presence of us  ?Anne (or Andrew) King Leonard Clark John Bigsby

PROBATUM (to Katherine Smith)


J.R. Woodhead (1966)

"SMITH, George (A)[17]

Co Co Broad Street, 1660, 1662, 1666-7 (1) St Helen, 1640, 1647, Lower Prec, St Bartholomew Exchange, 1655, 1667 (2) GR (3) b 1615, in City of London, d 29 Jun, bur 4 Jul 1667, at St Giles Cripplegate (4) Will PCC 98 Carr pr, 6 Jul 1667 mar (A) Katherine, (B) Martha, da of John Swift of London, merchant (5) Merchant Comm EIC, 1658-64, 1665-7 (6) Worth £2,000 p a in 1660 (7) Kt, 21 Sep 1660 (8) "a chief officer of the Blue Regiment" (6)

(1) 1662V Bk, St Bartholomew Exchange (2) Boyd 15739, VBk, St Bartholomew Exchange (3) CRO list (4) Boyd 15739, Smyth, Obituary, p 75 (5) Boyd 15739, LVP, 1664, p 130 (6) Smyth, Obituary, p 75 (7) Wotton, Eng Barts, IV, p 370 (8) LVP, 1664, p 130"

English East India Company

"[May 1st, 1646] A letter of attorney from John Diggs is presented by George Smith, whereupon silk, calicoes, and money to the value of 347/. 17. 4. are ordered to be delivered to him."[18]

"[August 27th, 1647] George Smith, servant to George Smith, and Thomas Hall, servant to John Wylde, by service, each paying 10s. to the poor-box."[19]

"[February 11th, 1648] Gerard Russell transfers to George Smith, merchant, 1,193/. 9s. 2d. in the Fourth Joint Stock with all profits"[20]

"[July 4th, 1649] William Cokayne, by unanimous erection of hands, is re-elected Governor, William Methwold Deputy, and John Massingberd Treasurer, for the ensuing year. Sir Thomas Soame, Thomas Kerridge, Richard Davies, Thomas Hodges, Andrew Riccard, and George Smith are chosen as the six new Committees in the place of Andrew Morewood and Robert Gayer, deceased, and of Alderman Midleton, William Garway, Ozias Churchman, and Anthony Bateman, who retire. Therefore the Committees for the ensuing year are : Sir John Gayer, Sir Thomas Soame, Sir Jacob Garrad, Thomas and James Mann, Messrs. Reynardson, Bateman, Ashwell, Holloway, Wilson, Burnell, Jennings, Keate, Morewood, Kerridge, Martin, Abdy, Andrews, Davies, Williams, Rich, Hodges, Riccard, and Smith. Richard Swinglehurst is re-elected Secretary."[21]

"[March 8, 1650] John Swift transfers 200l. and profits in the Second General Voyage, viz. 100l. to Mr. Smith, and 100l. to Mr. Vincent."[22]

"The following securities are accepted : Barnabas Mayre for Matthew Andrews, William Dyer for John Swinnarton, Mr. Maisters for Christopher Oxenden (until his father comes to town, who is then to be his surety), the Secretary for his son Edward Swinglehurst, and George Smith, Junior, for John Lambton."[23]

"Samuel Gibbs transfers to George Smith, Junior, 300/. adventure and profits in the Second General Voyage, and a like sum with all profits in the same Voyage to William Vincent"[24]

Sir William Ryder

Somewhat surprisingly, there is no mention of Sir William Ryder in Sir George Smith's will, despite their commercial relationship

Samuel Pepys & Sir George Smith

"[Tuesday 8 August 1665] I to Sir W. Batten’s, and there sat the most of the afternoon talking and drinking too much with my Lord Bruncker, Sir G. Smith, G. Cocke and others very merry. I drunk a little mixed, but yet more than I should do."[25]

"[Thursday 10 August 1665] We sat late [at the office], and then by invitation my Lord Brunker, Sir J. Minnes, Sir W. Batten and I to Sir G. Smith’s to dinner, where very good company and good cheer. Captain Cocke was there and Jacke Fenn, but to our great wonder Alderman Bence, and tells us that not a word of all this is true, and others said so too, but by his owne story his wife hath been ill, and he fain to leave his house and comes not to her, which continuing a trouble to me all the time I was there."[26]

"[Wednesday 16 August 1665] From the ‘Change to Sir G. Smith’s with Mr. Fenn, to whom I am nowadays very complaisant, he being under payment of my bills to me, and some other sums at my desire, which he readily do. Mighty merry with Captain Cocke and Fenn at Sir G. Smith’s, and a brave dinner, but I think Cocke is the greatest epicure that is, eats and drinks with the greatest pleasure and liberty that ever man did."[27]

"[Monday 28 August 1665] I to the Exchange, and I think there was not fifty people upon it, and but few more like to be as they told me, Sir G. Smith and others."[28]

"[Wednesday 20 September 1665] I find here a design in my Lord Bruncker and Captain Cocke to have had my Lord Bruncker chosen as one of us to have been sent aboard one of the East Indiamen, and Captain Cocke as a merchant to be joined with him, and Sir J. Minnes for the other, and Sir G. Smith to be joined with him. But I did order it so that my Lord Bruncker and Sir J. Minnes were ordered, but I did stop the merchants to be added, which would have been a most pernicious thing to the King I am sure."[29]

"[Wednesday 4 October 1665] This night comes Sir George Smith to see me at the office, and tells me how the plague is decreased this week 740, for which God be praised! but that it encreases at our end of the town still, and says how all the towne is full of Captain Cocke’s being in some ill condition about prize-goods, his goods being taken from him, and I know not what."[30]

"[Sunday 8 October 1665]...having ordered all the Captains of the ships in the river to come to me, I did some business with them, and so to Captain Cocke’s to dinner, he being in the country. But here his brother Solomon was, and, for guests, myself, Sir G. Smith, and a very fine lady, one Mrs. Penington, and two more gentlemen."[31]

"[Sunday 5 November 1665] With him [Captain Cocke, who was "drunke was a dogg"] in his coach to Mr. Glanville’s, where he sat with Mrs. Penington and myself a good while talking of this fine woman again and then went away. Then the lady and I to very serious discourse and, among other things, of what a bonny lasse my Lady Robinson is, who is reported to be kind to the prisoners, and has said to Sir G. Smith, who is her great crony, “Look! there is a pretty man, I would be content to break a commandment with him,” and such loose expressions she will have often."[32]

"[Wednesday 15 November 1665] [Lady Batten, at the King's Head tavern, where Pepys' had dined] after vexing her a little more in mirth, I parted, and to Glanville’s, where I knew Sir John Robinson, Sir G. Smith, and Captain Cocke were gone, and there, with the company of Mrs. Penington, whose father, I hear, was one of the Court of justice, and died prisoner, of the stone, in the Tower"[33]

"[Friday 24 November 1665] Off the 'Change I went home with Sir G. Smith to dinner, sending for one of my barrels of oysters, which were good, though come from Colchester, where the plague hath been so much. Here a very brave dinner, though no invitation; and, Lord! to see how I am treated, that come from so mean a beginning, is matter of wonder to me."[34]

"[Monday 27 November 1665] Thence Cocke and I to Sir G. Smith’s, it being now night, and there up to his chamber and sat talking, and I barbing —[shaving]— against to-morrow; and anon, at nine at night, comes to us Sir G. Smith and the Lieutenant of the Tower, and there they sat talking and drinking till past midnight, and mighty merry we were, the Lieutenant of the Tower being in a mighty vein of singing, and he hath a very good eare and strong voice, but no manner of skill. Sir G. Smith shewed me his lady’s closett, which was very fine; and, after being very merry, here I lay in a noble chamber, and mighty highly treated, the first time I have lain in London a long time."[35]

Benjamin Glanville, King's agent, Ostend, 1666

"If Lord Arlington did not always acknowledge or return the compliments which were paid to him, he respected the feelings of his friend, even when excited by insufficient causes. A Mr. Glanville had been sent over to Ostend, upon business connected with the recovery of the tin which had been lost: the jealousy of Temple was excited, and he complained in his usual style of affected indifference:-

I had resolved never to mention Mr. Glanville more, since he takes occasion to publish at Ostend and Bruges that I have done all I can to oppose his being the King's agent at Ostend. but that the copies of my letters are sent him still be the next post, though they have been to so little purpose, that his commission is now prepared, and will come next week; which, God knows, I trouble my head so little about, and if his Majesty thinks fit to have his residency here broken into so many splinters, I shall repent it no otherwise than is due to the present unwillingness of the resident.[36]

Anglican Royalism, Pincus

"Although Sir William Ryder’s pre-Restoration record is difficult to discern, his will reveals his close friendship with the Anglican Royalist Mayor of London and fellow Africa Company assistant Sir John Robinson and with Sir Richard Ford. The Dutch he described as "that insulting nation" noted especially for their bribery and their perfidy"

[Pincus footnotes these comments with a series of letters to Sir George Oxenden]

"FN 36: William Ryder to George Oxenden, 26 March 1662, BL, Add. 40711, ff. 26v-27r. I owe the information on Ryder’s will due to the kindness of Henry Horwitz. Ryder’s "fearing the issue of a Dutch war" almost certainly reflects his economic fears rather than his political opposition: Pepys, Diary, Vol. V, 28 May 1664, p. 159. Ryder was closely associated with the Anglican Royalist merchants George Smith and George Oxenden: George Smith to Oxenden, 8 March 1666, BL, Add. 40710, f. 32r; George Smith to Oxenden, 14 March 1666, Add. 40712, f. 25r; Sir William Ryder to Oxenden, 22 August 1667, BL, Add. 40713, f. 15r. For the intolerance of Sir John Robinson see Ludlow, "A Voyce," Bod., English History MSS C487, p. 996"[37]

Possible primary sources


C 6/142/119 Short title: Peirson v Smith. Plaintiffs: Thomas Peirson. Defendants: George Smith, Paul Priaulx, Martha Wood, Hugh Wood, Simon Wood, Lewis Wood and others. Subject: property in Bromley, Kent. Document type: bill, answer, replication. 1658
C 6/163/13 Short title: Brereton v Smith. Plaintiffs: Robert Brereton, Theophilus Brereton and Thomas Brereton. Defendants: Sir George Smith kt, Stephen Langham and Dame Rebecca Vincent. Subject: manor of Sonning, Berkshire. Document type: bill, two answers. 1663
C 10/488/141 Sir John Lewis baronet, Sir James Muddiford baronet, Sir George Smith knight, Sir George Oxendon knight, Thomas Hussey and others v Nicholas Millett, William Kennon, George Male, William Stevens, John North, Samuel Roberts and others: money matters, Middlesex. 1665
C 10/26/1 Robert Abdy, George Smith, William Vincent, Nathaniel Wyer, Thomas Bowyer, John Juxon and others v James Wych: money matters, Kent. Bill and motion 1658
C 10/54/7 Robert Abdy, George Smith, Edward Kempe and others v James Wych: money matters. Answer 1659

PROB 11/395 Ent 1-46 Will of John Bigsbie or Bigsby, Brewer of London 25 February 1689 (match to Sir George Smith's servant, mentioned in Smith's will, is somewhat doubtful)

Keele University

"34. 10 Oct. 1655 Deed relating to a capital messuage, tenement and farm called Coles Place, in Northway. Parties: (i) William Vincent, citizen and merchant of London, Rebeccca his wife (ii) Stephen Langham, George Smith, citizens and merchants of London"[38]

Possible secondary sources

Pincus, Stephen C.A., 'Popery, Trade and Universal Monarchy: The Ideological Context of the Outbreak of the Second Anglo-Dutch War', English Historical Review (1992) CVII(CCCCXXII): 1-29 doi:10.1093/ehr/CVII.CCCCXXII.1
  1. Sir George Smith's will is dated May 31st 1667 and proved July 6th 1667
  2. A proof of Sir George Smith's apprenticeship can be found amongst Sir George Smith's probate papers in the Westminster Abbey Muniments
  3. 'A Court of Committees, August 27, 1647' (Court Book, vol. xx, p. 142), in Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A calendar of court minutes of the East India Company, 1644-1649 (Oxford, 1912), p. 220
  4. Sir William Vincent will
  5. Steven C. A. Pincus, Protestantism and Patriotism: Ideologies and the Making of English Foreign Policy, 1650-1668 (Cambridge, 1996), fn. 16, pp. 242-243
  6. 22nd June 1657, Letter from Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorne, to secretary Thurloe, Thomas Birch, A collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, vol. 6: January 1657 - March 1658, p. 113, 22nd June 1657, Letter from Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorne, to secretary Thurloe
  7. J.R. Woodhead, 'Salmon - Sykes', The Rulers of London 1660-1689: A biographical record of the Aldermen and Common Councilment of the City of London (1966), pp. 143-159. URL: Date accessed: 02 January 2012
  8. 16th April 1667, Letter from William Rider to Sir GO, London
  9. 22nd August 1667, Letter from William Ryder to Sir GO, Bethnal Green
  10. Benjamin Glanville, London merchant. Benjamin Glanville wrote to Sir George Oxenden in March 1663, mentioning his "Brother Swift" (March 1662/63, Letter from Benjamin Glanville to Sir GO). John Swift, merchant, was the brother-in-law in question, who was also a brother-in-law of Sir George Smith
  11. UNLIKELY MATCHED RECORD: Will of Benjamin Albyn, Merchant of London 02 June 1676 PROB 11/352 Bence Quire Numbers: 109 - 158 pp. 3 PDF. See also: INVENTORY RELATED TO 1676 WILL: UK NA: Piece details: PROB 4/11649 [PRPB 4 = Prerogative Court of Canterbury and Other Probate Jurisdictions: Engrossed Inventories Exhibited from 1660]: Scope and Content: Albyn, Benjamin, of Little St. Hellens, London, esq.: Covering Dates: 1679 15 May (1676): Former Reference: 1676W; WIFE? Will of Elizabeth Albyn, Widow of London 28 June 1700 PROB 11/458 Noel Quire Numbers: 163 - 196 pp. 4 PDF
  12. Benjamin Glanville was appointed the King's agent at Ostend in May 1666 (Thomas Peregrine Courtenay (ed.), Memoirs of the life, works, and correspondence of Sir William Temple, bart, vol. 1 (London, 1836), p. 235
  13. The manuscript does appear to say “Cooke”, but I do wonder if itis not a legal copyist error at the time since I know that Peter Cooze was known to Sir George Smith and was regarded as honest. SEE: Will of Peter Cooze, Mariner of Stepney, Middlesex 08 March 1669 PROB 11/329
  14. John Fenn (or a member of kin) probably married Katherine Smith, Sir George Smith’s daughter, shortly after his death. SEE: "Yo:e hearty Serv:t S:r George Smith is dead. His friends reporte him worth 20000:ll but ye more moderate say it was but 11000:ll his daughter hath married Al:d Fen ..." (LETTER FROM HENRY OXINDEN (SIC) TO GO: [1667]: ff. 47-51)
  15. I can only conclude that Sir George Smith has fallen out with his wife, or that she is ill and incapable of handling the estate as executrix or “raising” her daughter
  16. WILD GUESS MATCHED RECORD: Will of Francis Williamson of Inner Temple London 04 February 1668PROB 11/326 Hone Quire Numbers: 1 – 57 pp. 2 PDF
  17. J.R. Woodhead, 'Salmon - Sykes', The Rulers of London 1660-1689: A biographical record of the Aldermen and Common Councilment of the City of London (1966), pp. 143-159. URL: Date accessed: 02 January 2012
  18. 'A Court of Committees, May 1, 1646 (Court Book, vol. xix, p. 451), in Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A calendar of court minutes of the East India Company, 1644-1649 (Oxford, 1912), p. 143
  19. 'A Court of Committees, August 27, 1647' (Court Book, vol. xx, p. 142), in [Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A calendar of court minutes of the East India Company, 1644-1649 (Oxford, 1912), p. 220
  20. 'A Court of Committees, February ii, 1648 (Court Book, vol. XX, p. 199), in [Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A calendar of court minutes of the East India Company, 1644-1649 (Oxford, 1912), p. 257
  21. 'A General Court of Election, July 4, 1649 (Court Book, vol. XX, p. 369), in Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A calendar of court minutes of the East India Company, 1644-1649 (Oxford, 1912), p. 332
  22. 'A Court of Committees for the Fourth Joint Stock, March 8, 1650 (Court Book, vol. xx, p. 502), in Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1650-1654 (Oxford, 1913), p. 27
  23. 'A Court of Committees for the Fourth Joint Stock, March 20, 1650 (Court Book, vol. xx, p. 511, in Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1650-1654 (Oxford, 1913), p. 31
  24. 'A Court of Committees for the Fourth Joint Stock, March 22, 1650' (Court Book, vol. xx, p. 514), in Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1650-1654 (Oxford, 1913), p. 33
  25., viewed 02/01/12
  26., viewed 02/01/12
  27., viewed 02/01/12
  28., viewed 02/01/12
  29., viewed 02/01/12
  30., viewed 02/01/12
  31., viewed 02/01/12
  32., viewed 02/01/12
  33., viewed 02/01/12
  34., viewed 02/01/12
  35., viewed 02/01/12
  36. 'May 7. 1666', Thomas Peregrine Courtenay (ed.), Memoirs of the life, works, and correspondence of Sir William Temple, bart, vol. 1 (London, 1836), p. 235
  37. Steven C. A. Pincus, Protestantism and Patriotism: Ideologies and the Making of English Foreign Policy, 1650-1668 (Cambridge, 2002), p. 250
  38. Special collections and archives, Keele University: Polstead Hall, Suffolk: A handlist,