HCA 13/73 f.179r Annotate
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The 11th of Aprill
The claime of Anthony ffernandez, John Page, Gowen Painter,}
Antonio Robles, Andrew Dunkin, John Tilly and John Chanterell for}
two hundred and Eighty Chests of Indico, Twenty two Chests of Drugs}
two small barrells of Druggs. two small Potaccoes of Druggs 476 hydes}
1094 Spanish Roves of Sassaperilla lately laden in the ship the Hope}
(Patrick Betts Master) and alsoe for the said ship the Hope and her tackle}
Apparrell and ffurniture, Smith Suckley Budd.}
Examined upon the
on the behalfe of the
John Lopez of Cadiz in Spaine Merchant, aged 30 yeeres
or thereabouts sworne and examined
To the first and second articles of the said allegation hee saith and deposeth that in the monethes
of May and June of the yeare 1657 the producents Anthony ffernandez, John
Page, Gowen Painter and Antonio Robles had speech and communication with
this deponent (then in London) and told him that they had a designe to send a
shipp and cargo of goods from Amsterdam to the Spanish West Indias for
their account, and proposed to him to goe their factor or Sopracargo (assisted
by Peter Ailewoo[?r]d) to barter and truck away the said cargo and invest the
same in other merchandizes of the said Indias, and this deponent condiscending
to undertake the imployment, they provided a matter of seaven hundred
pounds worth of woollens, silkes and callicoes and sent the same in two shipps
from this port to Amsterdam, in one of which shipps this deponent together
with Patrick Betts (who was to goe master of the said shipp that soe was to proceed
on the said voyage) and in the other the said Peter Ailewood passed to Amsterdam
with the said goods soe sent, which were consigned to John Chanterwell and
John Tilly arlate who were to provide other goods there to make up the said
lading, and to buy a shipp there for the transportation thereof and bringing
back the proceed, and the said Aileward, Bets and this deponent safely arived
with the said goods sent hence, at Amsterdam in or about July 1657, And
further deposeth not saving what followeth.
To the third hee saith that after and upon their said arivall with the said
goods at Amsterdam the said John Chanterwell and John Tilley there bought
a certaine vessell called the Hope for the said Imployment, and diverse other
goods and merchandizes, which together with those [?conveied] hence were laded
aboard the said shipp for the said voyage. And when they were soe come to
Amsterdam this deponent was hense advised by his said Imployers that mr
Andrew dunkin (meaning mr dunkin one of the producents) was admitted partner
in the said adventure, and saith the said Chanterwell and Tilley having
disbursed mre moneys for the said shipp and lading provided at Amsterdam
than was remitted unto them by the said originall undertakers, they the said
Chanterwell and Tilley were in regard thereof alsoe admitted into the
said [?securitie]. soe that the said shipp was bought and laded with goods at
Amsterdam for the said voyage on and for the ioynt account of them the
said ffernandez, Page, Painter, Robles, dunkin, Chanterwell and Tilley.
To the fourth article hee saith and deposeth that the said Betts was
by all the said Imployers admitted and constituted master of the said shipp
and this deponent and Aileward Sopracargo's of her for the said voyage
to whom the management of the said shipp and goods was by and for
account of the said Imployers committed to the end aforesaid namely to barter
away and invest the said outward cargo in goods of the Spanish West Indias
to be brought to the downes, where advice was to be expected from the
said Merchants of London or some of them, whether the said goods should
be dischardged in England or carried to Amsterdam, which hee knoweth
being the principall person entrusted and relied on by the said marchants
for the management of their said designe in the West Indies.
Antonio ffernandez [Carvajal?]
Text of entry: "Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (c.1590–November 10, 1659)—in Portuguese: António Fernandes Carvalhal—was a Portuguese-Jewish merchant, who became the first endenizened English Jew.
He was born around 1590, probably at Fundão, Portugal. He appears to have left Fundão on account of the persecution of the Inquisition and, proceeding to the Canary Islands, acquired much property there, made many commercial connections, which led him (about 1635) to London, where he settled in Leadenhall Street. In 1649 the council of state appointed him one among the five persons who received the army contract for corn. In 1653 Carvajal was reported as owning a number of ships trading to the East and West Indies, to Brazil, and to the Levant.
He dealt in all kinds of merchandise, including gunpowder, wine, hides, pictures, cochineal, and especially corn and silver, and is reported to have brought to England, on average, £100,000 worth of silver per annum.
In the early days of his residence in England, Carvajal used to attend mass at the Spanish ambassador's chapel, and in 1645 was informed against for not attending church; but the House of Lords, on the petition of several leading London merchants, quashed the proceedings. In 1650, when war broke out with Portugal, Carvajal's ships were especially exempted from seizure, though he was nominally a Portuguese subject. In 1655 he and his two sons were granted denizenship as English subjects (the patent being dated August 17 of that year); and when the war with Spain broke out in the following year, his property in the Canaries was liable to seizure, as he was a British subject. Oliver Cromwell made arrangements by which Carvajal's goods were transported from the Canaries in an English ship which passed under Dutch colors.
When Menasseh Ben Israel came to England in 1655 to petition Parliament for the return of the Jews to England, Carvajal, though his own position was secured, associated himself with the petition; and he was one of the three persons in whose names the first Jewish burial-ground was acquired after the Robles case had forced the Jews in England to acknowledge their creed.
Carvajal, besides advancing money to Parliament on cochineal, had been of service to Cromwell in obtaining information as to the Royalists' doings in Holland (1656). One of his servants, Somers, alias Butler, and also a relative, Alonzo di Fonseca Meza, acted as intelligencers for Cromwell in Holland, and reported about Royalist levies, finances, and spies, and the relations between Charles II and Spain.
It was to Carvajal that Cromwell gave the assurance of the right of Jews to remain in England. Under the date of February 4, 1657, Burton, in his diary, states:
"'The Jews, those able and general intelligencers whose intercourse with the Continent Cromwell had before turned to profitable account, he now conciliated by a seasonable benefaction to their principal agent [Carvajal] resident in England.'
According to Lucien Wolf, in 1658 a cargo of logwood belonging to Carvajal was seized by the customs officers. He assembled his servants and friends, broke open the government warehouses, and carried off his merchandise. The litigation to which this gave rise was interrupted only by Carvajal's death, which occurred in London."Antonio Robles (Antonio Rodrigues Robles)
DEL 2/121 Report from Committee of the Admiralty to Council of State touching petition of Antonio Fernandez, referred to Judges of Admiralty Note: paper 2 fos 1650
PROB 11/296/118 Will of Anthony Fernandez Carnajall, Merchant of London 03 December 1659 [PRESUMABLY A TNA INDEXING ERROR FOR "CARVAJAL(L)"]
PROB 11/306/348 Will of Gowen Paynter, Merchant of London 26 November 1661
State PapersSP 84/159 Deposition of Ant. Fernandez Carvisall, on the King Solomon. f. 225. 17 August 1654
Lucien Wolf, 'The First English Jew', from in Transactions of the Historical Society of England, ii.14-16