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Textiles, garments, & dyes glossary



Tweet us or Email us your contributions. To learn more about the Textiles, Garments & Dyestuffs volunteer sub-group which is coordinating this glossary click here. Do please consider joining
Dr Susan Mee, member of the glossary sub-group, is co-author of the recently published book, Margaret Spufford & Susan Mee, The Clothing of the Common Sort, 1570-1700 (Pasold Studies in Textile History, 2017)

Purpose

Established December 24th, 2017. A communally created glossary of textiles, garments, & dyes taken from early and mid-C17th English High Court of Admiralty documents, second half of the C17th Chancery Court documents relating to commercial disputes, second half of the C17th Prerogative Court of Canterbury merchants' inventories and wills, and a London coastal portbook from the 1650s.

The terms are referenced to primary manuscript sources, typically linked to manuscript images and full text transcriptions. As of 25/01/2018, the glossary contains ca. 1050 terms, with contributions from thirty-four individuals, and over 600 footnotes with clickable sources.

Contributing to the glossary

We are using the @Marinelivesorg Twitter account to solicit new commentary and edits on specific terms, which we are incorporating into the glossary. We will acknowledge all contributions, but reserve the right (with the agreement of contributors) to make small editorial changes. Recent tweets related to the glossary can be found at #C17textilesglossary

Contributors

In alphabetical order:

Dr Kimberly Alexander, Dr Aaron Allen, Dr Carolyn Arena, Cynthia Chin, Nicola Clarke, Freyalynn Close-Hainsworth, Eglantine, Dr Karwan Fatah-Black, Helen Good, Colin Greenstreet, Tracey E Griffiths, Viveka Hansen, Dave Henderson, Dr Stefan Hessbrüggen-Walter, Jeffrey Hopper; Heather Knight, Dr Marcin Krygier, M.L. Logue, Dr Angela McShane, the pseudonymous Mapnut, Paula Marmor, Dr Susan Mee, Menno Jonker, Angela Middleton, Frances Owen, Tim Parry-Williams, Mark Ponte, Dr Michael Pearce, Elizabeth Pimblett, Dr Sophie Pitman, Dr Jo Pugh, Dr Deborah Sherlock, Dr Stephen Snelders, Ian Stoll, Peter Taylor, Dr Samantha Thompson, Rebecca Unsworth



NEW TERMS, W/C 08/01/2018

Black beaver hatt; Blacke velvett; Bowlas cloth; Britches; Chimney cloth; Claspes at his breeches; COLOURS: azur, blacke and crimsome, black and purple, black and white, cromsoine, crimsome, incarnation, lead coller, orangecoller, seagreene, skey coller, skeycoller, tawney, watershell, wood coller; Combed English wooll; Cunny skinns; Cutting house; Cutting roome; Dry horse hydes; English woad; English yarne; Feathermaker; ffell wooll; Fine slotias; Flaxen table clothes; Goats wooll; Gold and silver mohaire; Gray broadcloth; Hart hydes, Hatbands; Holland cupboard clothes; Jersey stockings; Lyned hangings of paragon; Mort kid skinns, Mort lambe skinns, Old ffeathere boulsters; Old stript stuff; Pack cloathes; Pladd, Pladding; Rabbets skinns; Scarlett coloured sattin morning coate; Searge hangings; Searge funiture; Sherling sheepe skins; Slaughtered kidskinns; Slaughtered lambe skinns; Loose cunny skinns, Stript cupbord cloth; Tannd calveskinns; Teastor; Tykeing towell; Untawed lambe skinns; Vallons; Velvet chaires; Wadmell; Wadmell mittens; White curtaines; Woollen fflox; Would for dyers

NEW TERMS, W/C 15/01/2018

Apparell; Backs of leather; Barke; Black velvets; Blue and red cloths; Bollangna silke; Bombazin; Bombazin of Hamborough; Browne linnen; Brown canvas; Browne Normandye canvas; Buck skinns; Cambrick; Chard kersies; Coloured cloths; Coloured velvets; Copperas; Course yarne; Darnix; Goggskins; Doe skinns; Dornix; Dowlaix; Dressed calve skinns; Dressed white cloths; English allam; English flax; English goate skins; English hempe; Ferret silk; ffembles; fflannell; Florence taffeta; Flowery-coloured cloths; Flox; Goates skinns; Guinney cloths; Haberdashery wares; Haire; Haire cloathes; Irish wooll; Leith wind hose; Lockroms; Long reele yarne; Minke skinns; Mixed kersies; Mixed Spanish cloths; Normandye canvas; Northerne cottens; Ordinary Naples; Peltes; Plaiding; Poldanis; Quinsborough canvas; Red Muscovia hides; Remnant of tapestry; Roane Linnens; Sacking; Scotch gray cloath; Scotch ffingering; Seamens clothes; Silk laces of Paris; Skinns of lambes; Squob; Taffata's of Granada; Wadmell stockings; Weeld; White linnen; White Normandye canvas

NEW TERMS, W/C 22/01/2018

Beast hayre; Browne Hamburg Slotia lynnen; Bullocks hayre; Coney skinns; Coney wooll; Course canvas; Course linnen cloth; Crimson rug; Damaske window curtains lined with searge; Deere skinns; Drest sheeps skinns; English coney skins; English combe wooll; English drest hempe; English roached allam; English cordage; English poldanis; English rough hempe; Fine Holland sheetes; ffrench chamblett; Girthwebb; Goate skins in the haire; Gold and silke lace; Green cloth; Green cotton; Grey conny skinns; Hart skins; Horse hydes; Kipps; Linnen scotch cloath; Linnen yarne; London cloath; Mohaire bedd; Northern cottons; Northern woollen cloath; Rawe hydes; Returned lynnen drapery and upholstry wares; Rissells stuffs; Roe skins; Rough English hempe; Rough flax; Sackwebb; Salt hydes; Scotch pladeing; Scotch yarne; Tanned leather; Ticking; Tuking; Tweell; Twellinge; Twine; Tyckeing; Undrest flax; Vittry canvas; White and blew printed statin; Woollen knitt stockins for men; Woollen thrums; Yarne

NEW TERMS, W/C 29/01/2018

Bengala girdles; Callico cupboard cloathes; Cheese cloath; Doublet of ffrench chamblet; English flox; Flock work hangings; Grasse greene silke curtaines; Gray broad cloath; Haire cloth; Hat band in gold in severall pieces; Hides in the haire; Holland napkins; Holland pillowboards; :eather drawers; Linnen drawers; Long towell of fyne dyaper called dammaske dyaper; Messalapan stuffes; Old chamlet coat; Old cloth coat; Old plush suit; Old suits of apparel; Ordinary course sheets; Redd plush couch cover embroydered; Riding cloakes; Silke lace; Vallens of watered mohaire lyned with greene sarsenett; White Gentish cloath; Wool-card

NEW TERMS, W/C 05/02/2018

Bedd coverlets; Bedd tikes; Black bone lace; Box with wearing linnen; Cloth cloake; Elands skinne; Graye riding cloke; Hollands woollen cloth; Old Spanish wearing clothes; Scarlet coates with silver buttons; Wainscot presse for clothes;

NEW TERMS, W/C 19/02/2018

Calles or coyfes

NEW TERMS, W/C 9/04/2018

Cordevant, Cordovan leather

NEW TERMS, W/C 16/04/2018

Wastcoat

NEW TERMS, W/C 30/04/2018

Doublet



NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 01/01/2018

Black silke poynts; Blew starch; Damaskillias; Galls; Napkins of birdseye worke; Napkins of rose and crame worke; Oaken bark

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 08/01/2018

Beaver hatt; Castor hatts; Hatts; Furs; Rich furrs; Would

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 15/01/2018

Bombazin; Darnix; ffembles; Leith wind hose

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 22/01/2018

Beast hayre; Copperas; Squab; Vittry canvas; Tweell; Tykeing

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 29/01/2018

Leather drawers

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 05/02/2018

Bandstrings; Brazil wood; Buffe coate; Campecha wood; Elands skinne

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 12/02/2018

Bone lace; Cutcheneale; Madder

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 19/02/2018

Anil; Azur; Black hoods; Calles or coyfes; ffell wooll; ffellwooll; Livery lace; Ossen brigs

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 26/02/2018

Dyeing stuffe; Fustick

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 5/03/2018

Linen

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 12/03/2018

Coney skinns, Copper buttons

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 19/03/2018

Black hoods, Kersey

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 26/03/2018

Box combs, Box-wood, Corrall beads

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 2/04/2018

Baies, Blacke minikin bayes,Buttons, Minikin bayes, Minneken bayes, Minnekin bayes, Perpetuanes

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 9/04/2018

Broderer, Cordevant, Cordovan leather, Counterpaine, Rissells stuffs, Serge

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 16/04/2018

Norwich stuffes

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 23/04/2018

Turkey carpet, Turkey chaires, Turkey work

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 30/04/2018

Doublet, Dubbletts

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 7/05/2018

Valance, Valence of church stuffe

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 14/05/2018

Thrumbs, Woollen thrums

NEW CONTRIBUTIONS, W/C 21/05/2018

Hemp, Hempen sheets, Hempen sheetes




Index


A · B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I · J · K · L · M · N · O · P · Q · R · S · T · U · V · W · X · Y · Z



A


Adorettas (alt. ?adretto) ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes", 1657)[1]; COMMENTARY: Colin Greenstreet 'Adretto' is one of a number of fabrics listed in the 1651 inventory of the estate of Henry Landis of Boston, shopkeeper.[2]
Allom ("[WHITBY TO LONDON] Elizabeth of Whitby Christopher Browne master...50 tunns of allom"[3]; "28 caske of allom")[4]
Allum (alt. allom) ("[COLCHESTER TO LONDON] Tryall of Colechesster James Johns master...1 tunn of allum", 1657;[5] "wax, grogeram yarne silke, cotton yarne and allum to be carried to Ligorne")[6]
Anil ("Indigo- und Anil-Sendungen aus San Lucar [indigo and anil shipments from San Lucar]", ca. 1640).[7] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Anil or wild indigo is an indigo-bearing blue dye plant (Indigofera suffruticosa) native to the subtropical Americas and widely introduced elsewhere.[8]
Apparell ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] John of ffeversham John Pizing master...2 truncks of apparell")[9]
Ardas silke[10]

Avinion silk
Azur ("one peace azur", ca. 1640)[11] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor A medium blue colour. "The clothiers used woad or, from about 1580, a mixture of woad and indigo, to give their wools a range of shades called, in descending order of darkness, sad blue, blue, azure, watchet, plunket and huling" (E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, page 17.[12]) "Azure" is also the standard term for blue in heraldry. SECONDARY SOURCE: Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England.[13]


B


Backs of leather ("[FAVERSHAM TO LONDON] James of fferversham John Monger master...20 backs of leather")[14]
Baies (alt. bayes) ("the said two bales of baies containing foure piece of black minneken baies")[15]; ("[LONDON TO BERGEHEN] the said shipp the Charity having in and on board her the goods wares and merchandises predeposed to him ... togeather with six basketts or frailes of figgs, two hundred pounds of Varinas Tobacco, two bales, to witt one of Cloath, and another of Baies")[16] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Baize is a plain-woven cloth with a strong, worsted-type warp and soft, carded woollen filling. 'Minikin baize' or 'minikins' are baizes woven of finer yarn, and were a C17th specialty of Coggeshall. (E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, pp. 87-92.) SECONDARY SOURCES: Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England.[17]

Collar with attached bandstrings worn by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lützen (1632). Image from Livrustkammaren (The Royal Armoury), Sweden, CC0 1.0 Public Domain, sourced via Wikimedia Commons.
Bandstrings ("26. grosse of bandstrings", 1653) [18] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor Long loops of fine linen cord, often finished with elaborate tassels, used in pairs to fasten ruffs and bands (collars). Extant bandstrings are looped through worked eyelet holes on the neckband of the collar. SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) Janet Arnold et al. Patterns of Fashion 4: The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1540-1660 (2008).[19] (2) Valerie Cumming, C. W. Cunnington, P. E. Cunnington. The Dictionary of Fashion History (2010).[20] PRIMARY SOURCE: Collar with attached bandstrings of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, 1632, Livrustkammaren (The Royal Armoury), Sweden, CC0 1.0 Public Domain, high-res .tif at Wikimedia Commons[21].

Barke ("[IPSWICH TO LONDON] John and Margaret of Ipswich John [?Lainbly] master...23 loads of barke")[22]
Basan silke ("imprimus one bagg of Basan silke 58 lb neat at 20 s per lbl")[23]
Bayes ("serges, bayes, sayes Norwich stuffes perpetuanes, and other goods, and after the same were provided, and bought the same were shipped on board a shipp called the Mackarel to bee carried and transported to Amsterdam")[24] (See Baies)
Bayes clothes ("4 bales of bayes clothes")[25]
Beads ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[26]
Beads of gold ("a rosarie of one hundred and fifty beads of gold laid upon precious wood, and linked togeather with a gold chaine, the said rosarie amounting in value to fifty pounds sterling or thereabouts")[27]
Beast hayre ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Talent of Hull Thomas Coates master...7 puncons of beast hayre 1 baskett of coney wooll...46 bundles of sackwebb, 2 [?tts] of girthwebb", 1658)[28]; COMMENTARY: Angela Middleton notes that animal hair was mixed with tar to form caulking, which was used to waterproof ships' planks
Beaver ("one barrell of beaver and one fearkin of suckets")[29]
Beaver hatt ("the arlate Robert Page was owner and lawfull proprietor and in possession of a certaine negro and of a beaver hatt, and died possessed thereof on or about the 23:th day of June last on Nevis one of the Caribbe islands"[30]; [INVENTORY: the Right honourable Sir John Kelying late Lord Cheife Justice of his Majestties Court of Kings Bench ] "In the chamber on my ladies chamber...2 beaver hatts")[31]; "three beaver hatts, worth 29 li 15 s sterling"[32]; "Hugh fforth did in the moneth of ffebruary 1656 cause to be laden and put on board the interrogate shipp the ffrancis and John whereof the interrogate Lawrence Browneing was master, then lyeing in the River of Thames and bound for Bantam interrogate two chests conteyning sixe and twenty beavers and thirteene felts marked and numbered as in the margent...to be transported in her for Bantam"[33]; COMMENTARY: Dr Michael Pearce notes a "1638 patent TNA E214/977, May 1638 To Sir David Cunningham, receiver general to the prince: Lease of the duty on beaver hats and caps made by the Beaver-makers of London, and part of the value of foreign made hats and caps illegally imported and seized; 21 years; £500"; SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[34]
Beaver skinns ("the said barrill att the time of the said lading containeing ninety eight beaver skinns, seaven otter skinns. and fower minx skinns"[35]; "the captaine of the said man of warr...came aboard the said ship the Pine-apple [A DUTCH SHIP] and violently tooke and carried away out of the same twenty whole beaver skinns and 4. otters skinns and foure other skinns called minke skinns and about 150. pounds of Virgina tobaccoe, the said beaver skinns being each worth 10. gilders in the whole 200. gilders and the said otter skinns and minke skinns worth fortie gilders and the said tobaccoee at 10. styvers the pound was worth in all five and seaventy gilders the whole summe amounting to three hundred and fifteen gilders or one and thirty pounds ten shillings sterling")[36]
Bedd coverlets[37]
Bedd tikes[38]
Bede boulster
Belts ("26. long belts and 12. wast belts", 1653[39]; "28 belts, at 10 gilders and a halfe a peece one with another", 1655)[40]
Bengall carpett ("if without any great prejudice to you you could contribute a sett of carpetts to adorne it; it would appeare theare to your honor, and a most acceptable thing to all; the roome is 20 ffeett square and a handsome oueld table bespoke for it; therefore the carpett for that must bee noless than 3 yds broad and a bout 4 yards long; the side board carpett of the ordinary life of these things At Bengall Kit sayed they are cheapest and they would make them there of what size you would bespeake them"[41]
Bengala girdles
Bengall taffetaes (alt. Bengall taffaties) ("certain Bengall taffaties ten shillings p peece")[42]
Bever-wool
Black bayes
Black beaver hatt ("I give and bequeath unto my esteemed good freind Master John Petitt my black beaver hatt")[43]
Black bone lace[44]
Black cloth ("I give and bequeath into my said sonne George all my beddinge and all other goodes whatsoever in my studdy and shamber att Cliffords Inn aforesaid excepte my bible (before excepted and the peece of black cloth conteyninge fower yardes London measure lyinge in the chest in my studdie there")[45]
Black cloth cloake
Black hat bands
Black hatts

Black hoods ("2. douzen of black hoods", 1653-54)[46] COMMENTARY:Dr Susan Mee: Black hoods, often of silk ('taffetie'), were a popular type of headgear for women. According to Mary Evelyn, daughter of the writer and diarist John Evelyn, a fashionable lady required: 'Hoods by whole dozens, White and black'.[47] Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) produced a number of finely detailed engravings of costume, some of which depict women wearing hoods. 'Winter' from his Four Seasons series provides a lovely example.[48] The University of Toronto's online 'Hollar Digital Collection' shows several images of women wearing hoods. PRIMARY SOURCES: Mary Evelyn, Mundus Muliebris or The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd, (London, 1690)[49]; Wenceslas Hollar, The Four Seasons. ed. J.L. Nevinson and Ann Saunders (1979).[50] SECONDARY SOURCES: University of Toronto, Hogarth in context: Hogarth's Works[51]; Aileen Ribeiro (2006) Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England, New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press.[52]
Black kersey (alt. blacke kersey)
Black lace
Blacke minikin bayes (alt. black minneken baies) ("two bailes of ninetin bayes containeing foure peeces of blacke minikin bayes marked and numbred as in the margent")[53] See Minikin bayes.
Black silke poynts ("All sorts of taffeta ribbon in a paper worth 9 li 3 s ten dozen of black silke poynts worth 1 li 8 s")[54] COMMENTARY: (1) Helen Good: "ties to hold your clothes together, as in - his points being broken down fell his hose" (2) Eglantine: "Strings for tying your hose or trousers to doublet? In this case, seems like fancy ones?" Paula Marmor:Yes, 'points' are laces or ribbons with metal tips used to fasten garments together, and later purely as decoration. The tips are called 'tips', 'aglets', 'aiglets' or 'lace tags'. SECONDARY SOURCES: Entry 'Points', Glossary of Costume Terms, in E. Gordenker (2002), Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture.[55] Entry 'Points', Glossary of Garments and Accessories, Margaret Spufford and Susan Mee, (2018). The Clothing of the Common Sort, 1570-1700, p. 265.[56]
Black velvets
Black worsted
Blacke and crimsome[57]
Blacke and purple[58]
Black and white[59]
Blacke cloath cloake lined with velvet
Blacke silke
Blacke velvett
Blankett
Blewcoats
Blew callico-bagg
Blew callicoes
Blew carpett
Blew cloth
Blew coat
Blew curtaines
Blew hangings("the blew hangings")[60]
Blew jackett
Blew plush ("I give and bequeath to the said Jane Seamer my daughter all my wearing apparell both linnen and woollen and also my cabbinett my black box lined with sarsnett my Bible covered with blew plush and my sable muffle")[61]
Blew printed stuff
Blew serge
Blew serge bed
Blew silke curtain lined with bayes ("i blew silke Curtain")[62]
lined with Bayes")
Blew starch ("laden with copper wire copper plates copper kettles some blew starch. tinne and lattin and other goods, coming as the master sayd from Hamborow bound for Roane in ffrance")[63] COMMENTARY: (1) Dr Michael Pearce: "Blue starch is the blue glass powder called smalt, used as a laundry whitener" (2) Freyalyn Close-Hainsworth: "Starch for ruffs and linen was often coloured. Elizabethan ruffs were often starched yellow. We think of blueing your white laundry as a 19C thing but I believe it goes back to our period and earlier" (3) Dr Sophie Pitman: "Reference to women in London starching ruffs blue "so that their complexion shall appear the whiter" in Thomas Platter, 1599"
Blewe damaske
Blewe lynnen cloth ("there was delivered unto a packer at the sayd John Digbyes house in the presence of him this deponent one peece of broadcloth synament colour part of which broad cloth the sayd Digbye in this deponents presence sould for eleaven shillings per yard, and one gray broadcloth, two peeces of hangings which this deponent sawe measured conteyninge fiftye two yards or thereabouts, for the like of which hangings this deponent about the same tyme payd to an uphoulsterer five shillings per yard the same being three yards broad; foure peeces of coloured bayes, fower peeces of stuffe halfe silke, one peece of silke saye, seaven yards of black kersey, two peeces of blewe lynnen cloath contayninge fourtye nyne yards which he sayeth he sawe measured and was well worth 14 d per yard twentye two yards of black bayes, and soe many Cordivant dubbletts, and soe many dozen button gloves, playne gloves, leather drawers leather stockings and leather capps as are expressed in the schedule arlate"[64]
Longe Bocking bayes ("twenty peeces of longe Bocking bayes")[65]
Blue and red cloths
Blue coloured cloth gownes
Bollagna silke ("Item 3 baggs of Bollangna silke 119 li neat at 24s per lb")[66]
Bollangna silke ("At Mr Paul Docminiques house in Colman streete London, son of the said deceased were the severall goods following which were received from the deceaseds house at Tottenham heigh Crosse thither...item 3 baggs of Bollangna silke 119 lb neat at 24 s per lb)[67]
Bologna black sarsenets
Bombazin (alt. bombasy; sey bombasy; dutch bombazijn; swedish bombasäng) ("an hundred sixtie foure peaces of bombazin of Hamborough"[68]; "ffrancis fforno alias van Obstal and Lewes Reynault (alias Rutharson) had at Cadiz laden for account and adventure of there the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier and John Reynault, on board a shipp called the ffortune (ffernando Gerardo Loro a spaniard commander) of the burthen of a hundred and tenn tonnes (or there abouts) with three peeces of ordnance and eighteene men, severall bales of Roane linnens, thredd and silk laces of Paris, bombazin, taffata's of Grenada, box combes and diverse other merchandizes, amounting all together with the charges of the said shipp (which belongs to the said John James fforno) to the summe of fowrscore thousand livers Tournois, to be carried and transported in the said shipp to Cartagena in the King of Spaines dominion in the West Indies. there to be vended and invested in silver and other Indian commodities for the same account and adventure of the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier, and John Reynault")[69]; COMMENTARY: Dr Michael Pearce provides an alternative spelling of "bombasy" and "sey bombasy", and speculates that it may have been a ribbed silk variety. He gives several examples from the late C16th. The first mention of "bombasy" is in a draper's bill (Clothing, 1589 Edinburgh University, Laing ms II. 2.9: drapers bill to Margaret Livingston, "Item to be a doublet to the said Mr Thomas thre els & half tw eld bombasy at xxxs the el"). The second is mention of "bombasy" in a merchant's inventory (Merchant: Alexander Park d,1570, NRS ECC8/8/2, p.102, Edinburgh Merchant, Flemish goods and price, "Item ane steik of bombasy price therof xlj s."); Viveka Hansen informs us that "According to ‘Svenska Akademiens Ordbok’ the word ‘bombasin’ or ‘bombasäng’ in Swedish had different meanings at different times: like silk/wool, woollen fabric, cotton qualities, cotton/wool etc. 3 references to the C17th in this Swedish source, including "Engelst bommersin", "Skåtz bommerssin", "Hollensk bomersin .. Hamburger bomersin".[70]; Dr Stephen Snelders notes that "in Dutch bombazijn was originally silk, but later cotton used especially for lining and workman’s clothing. Related to moleskin."[71]; Cynthia Chin comments that "even in popular C20th fiction, Margaret Mitchell used a black “bombazine” to style Scarlett O’Hara’s mid-C19th black mourning dress that made her look “a trifle elderly” in the 1936 “Gone with the Wind”; Dr Kimberly Alexander adds that "bombazin has yet additional meaning/composition in the first half of the C19th, much like camblet".
Bone lace (alt. bon lace) ("the sayd Hjeronimo Brudgmans bought and procured the sayd silver and moneys arlate for himselfe and the sayd Christian Aelst part thereof with the proceed of fine linnen and bone lace of fflanders", 1652)[72]; ("ffower yards of white bone lace worth 12 s")[73] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor Bobbin lace, pillow lace. Lace made by twisting and crossing multiple threads, which are wound on bobbins (originally made of bone, whence the name).[74] SECONDARY SOURCES: (1)'Bobbin lace', Wikipedia entry[75] (2) Janet Arnold (1988), Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, 'Bone lace', page 360.[76]
Bootehose topps of sarge ("18. douzen of stockins and bootehose toppes of sarge")[77]
Bootes ("such goods as the sayd Moulson had on board for his owne accompt as hatts shooes bootes sayes, broadcloath, stuffes, diaper linnen and the like")[78]
Box combs (alt. box combes) ("One chest of this eighth marke containeing two hundredd dozen of box combes"[79] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Combs made of box-wood or boxwood. "Boxwood combs with elaborate carved and pierced decoration seem to have been fashionable accessories for both women and men from about 1400 until well into the 17th century" (V&A item record, Comb, museum number 282-1900). Plain, undecorated box combs were found aboard the wreck of Henry VIII's carrack Mary Rose. SECONDARY SOURCES: OED, 'box', sense C1; V&A collection item record, Comb (museum number 282-1900)[80]
Box with wearing linnen[81]
Box-wood (alt. box wood) ("201 hogsheads of traine oile, 96 packs of whalebone, 1185 peeces of box-wood, sixtie seaven or sixtie eight baggs of wooll, and foure rolls of slight striped stuffe, all which were laden at Bayon in ffrance")[82] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Box-wood or boxwood is the pale, fine-grained wood of plants of the genus Buxus, formerly widely used for carving small boxes, combs, and the like. Also used to carve blocks for woodblock printing. SECONDARY SOURCES: Buxus, Wikipedia entry.[83]
Braide
Brazil wood ("200 quintalls of Brazil wood")[84] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Brazilwood, brazil, (Caesalpinia species of both Asia and the New World) is a source of the red dye brazilin. SECONDARY SOURCE: 'Brazilin', Wikipedia.
Brazil woode
Brazeelewood (alt. Brazeelwood) ("an allegation given on the behalfe of John Charker concerning the possession of 200 quintalls of Brazeelewood brought to this port of London in the shippe the Jon and Abigall of which Thornas Morley captaine"[85]
Breeches ("the Captaine of the sayd Golden Starr in stead of showing submission to the authority of this Commonwealth being upon the coasts of Englands as was demanded of him and is usuall did in a contemptuous manner returne skurrilous and base language and in an unbecoming and skornefull and reproach full way turned downe his breeches, and held upp his bare bumme or breech to the sayd Captaine Mill and company, and waved his cuttle axe bidding the sayd Captaine Mill come to leeward")[86]
Britches
Broad callicoe
Broad cheynies ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[87]
Broadcloth (alt. broad cloth, broadecloath, broade cloath) ("trusses of broadcloth")[88]
Broad cloath ("one broade cloath of a sinament colour contayning thirtye yards worth in his this deponents iudgement eleaven shillings per yard, one gray broad cloath contayninge twentye eighte yards worth in his iudgement ten shillings per yard")[89]; [SANDWICH TO LONDON] Samuell of Sandwich Isaac Robins master...24 peeces of broadcloath and kersey ret"[90]; [YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Sarah of Yarmouth William Waters master...4 pieces of broad cloath", 1658)[91]
Broad cloth
Broadcloth synament colour("one peece of broadcloth synament colour")[92]
Broad lockerams ("besides the sayd tenn bales, fower nests of truncks, fower full conteyning flaxe and twenty peeces of narrow lockerams and halfe a peece of Tregar or course cloath, and sixe peeces of broad lockerams"[93]
Broad perpetuanes (alt. broad perpetuanas) ("foure bayles of broad perpetuanes")[94]; "in or about the beginning of the moneth of March 1652 English style this deponent by the order and for the proper accompt of the said Luke Lucy his master payd the Customes due for the said goods in this port of London, the said perpetuanas containing threescore and one peeces all of broad perpetuanas, and the said two bailes of minnekin bayes containing foure peeces of black minnekin baies"[95]
Broad tapsells ("three bales of broad tapsells")[96]
Broadecloath
Broade cloath of a sinament colour ("one broade cloath of a sinament colour contayning thirtye yards worth in his this deponents iudgement eleaven shillings per yard, one gray broad cloath contayninge twentye eighte yards worth in his iudgement ten shillings per yard")[97]
Broader ribbon
Broderer ("Roger Lambert citizen and broderer of London")[98] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Embroiderer; specifically in this case, a member of the Broderers' Company, one of the powerful London livery companies. In 1667, Roger Lambert raised £1000 towards paying off the Company's debts, for which he was granted an annuity of £30 per annum in perpetuity. The annuity was finally bought out in 1878.[99] SECONDARY SOURCES: 'History of the Broderers', The Worshipful Company of Broderers[100]; Christopher Holford, A chat about the Broderers' Company, London: The Broderers' Company, 1910.[101]
Brown canvas ("[MILTON TO LONDON] Speedwell of Milton Richard Salmon master...2 rowles of brown canvas")[102]
Browne Hamburg Slotia lynnen ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Charles of Dover Thomas Kyte master...Thomas de La Vall: 39 bolts of poldanis damaged by salt water to one halfe vallue and 5 bolts browne Hamburg Slotia lynnen quantity 100 ells damaged by salt water ¼ parte...paid all dutyes at Sandwich 11 Xber last as per certificate dated 23 of the same out of the Black King of Hamburg Derrick Swarte master wracked neere Deale", 1658)[103]
Browne linnen ("three peeces of browne linnen and one peece of linnen...laded as aforesaid at Hamborow, and consigned to this port of London")[104]
Browne Normandye canvas ("[RYE TO LONDON] Ann of Rye Thomas Obe master...19 packets of browne Normandye canvas of 630 ells dutye paid", 1658)[105]
Boulster
Bowlas cloth ("three ells of bowlas cloth for shirt or shirts")[106]
Buchrams
Buck skinns ("[PLYMOUTH TO LONDON] Sarah of London George Hudson master...21 buck and doe skins")[107]'
Buckram testor
Buckrams
Buckskins
Buffalo hides ("the said shipp after the premisses going from Algier to Ligorne and thence to Smyrna, did at Smyrna in the moneth of October 1655 (or thereabouts) take in her ladeing of Buffalo hides, Cardinants, Cotton yarne, grogeram yarne wax Allum, and silke; and set saile thence therewith on or about the 28th day of the said moneth of October 1655 bound for Ligorne", 1655) [108] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: "Buffalo" refers to the European buffalo or wisent, also called European bison, aurochs, or wild-ox (Bison bonasus). Buffalo hides were used to make buff coats. SECONDARY SOURCE: Keith Dowen, Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, vol. XXI, no. 5, March 2015, pp. 157-188[109]
Buffalo hydes

Buffe coate (Dutch = kolder or heerenkolder) ("Nicholas Ransford salter listed one roan horse with a carabin buffe coate and sword valued att 18.00.00", 1643[110]; "William Barker mercer, listed one browne gelding with a starr and two white feete, furnished with a carabine, a case of pistolls, a buffe coate and a sword all valued att 24.00.00", 1643[111] COMMENTARY: Dutch curator, researcher and author Menno Jonker notes that elk skins were used in C17th clothing, giving the example of the use of the skin for "the so called 'kolder', a yellow sleeveless jacket - worn by militiamen".[112] Costume researcher Paula Marmor notes that wisent hide (European bison, called "buffalo"), cattle hide, and elk hide were used in the making of buff or buffe coats or 'kolder'. She highlights the work of military specialist Keith Dowen (2015) on the origins, production, design and construction of seventeenth century buff coats.[113] SECONDARY SOURCES: Keith Dowen, Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, vol. XXI, no. 5, March 2015, pp. 157-188[114]; Image of Heerenkolder', 1660-1670', Centraal Museum Utrecht[115]
Bull hides ("hee is not certaine but there may be more bull hides and fewer cowhides, or more cow hides and fewer bull hides, but for the number of hides bull and cow hides together hee beleeveth them to be as followeth within tenn or twelve hides more or lesse in the whole)")[116]
Bullocks hayre ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] John of ffeversham Marke Burden master...3 loads of bullocks hayre", 1658)[117]
Burma legee
Button gloves
Buttons ("one Camlet Coate with silke buttons", 1664)[118]; ("One hundred and two buttons weach button being sett with nyne small rose Diamonds valued at eight hundred Pounds", 1686)[119]; ("One Cassock with
silver buttons worth 4 li 10 s")[120] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: C17th buttons were made like knobs with shanks, and could be made of metal, glass, stuffed cloth, or thread worked over a core. SECONDARY SOURCES: Text with photos of extant C17th buttons and reproductions. 'Buttons', The 1642 Tailor, an online blog [121]. Description and photos of glass and metal buttons from the wreck of the 'Vasa', 1628, at the Digital Museum (Sweden).[122]

C


Cabinetts ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[123]
Cable
Calico
Calico hangings

Woman's linen coif worked with silk and metal thread, spangles, ca. 1600-1630, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Image CC-0 Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.[124]

Calles or coyfes ("8. douzen of wrought Calles or coyfes", 1653 or 1654)[125] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: 'Cauls' and 'coifs' are women's close-fitting caps, usually of linen. 'Wrought' in this context means decorated with needlework. Women of the common sort wore plain linen coifs, and richer women decorated their coifs with embroidery and lace edging. Peter Taylor notes that 6 dozen blue coifs were valued at £1 when sent from London [by ship] to Coleraine in 1615."[126]; SECONDARY SOURCES: Janet Arnold et al. Patterns of Fashion 4: The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1540-1660 (2008), pp. 12, 46-49.[127] V&A Collection, Coif, made 1620-1640.[128]
Callico cupboard cloathes
Callico lawnes or shashes
Callico pillowboards
Callico tableclothes
Callico window curtains
Callicoe quilts
Callicoe sheets ("a green carpett with ffringe and in my ould trunck a Holland sheete with three breadths a paire of Holland pillowbears a damask table cloth and twelve napkins a pair of fine callicoe sheetes with three breadths and a pair of pillowbears a pair of fine hempe sheets ")[129]
Callicoe tableclothes
Callicos (alt. callicoes) ("having aboard her a quantitie of marchandizes consisting in XX cottons and callicos XX XXX XXX factor XXX account taken aboard her on the coast of Cormandel was carrying XX XXX for Bantam for which place the said goods were XXXX and were provided XXXXX to be ther XXXXXX")[130]
Calve skins (alt. calveskins) ("the said Whitwood did provide a considerable quantity of calves skinnes for part of the said ships lading")[131]
Calma silke ("one bale of white Calama silke")[132]
Cambrick ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Richard and Susan of Dover Christopher Dewson master...2 halfe peeces of lockroms: 1 halfe peece of dowlaix 1 remnant of Holland. 2 peeces of callicoes and 1 peece of cambrick)[133]
Cambricke (alt. cambrick) ("one smale box of cambricke and lawnes"[134]; "the said producent within the space of a yeare before October last shipped and sent severall goods (as linnen cloth, laces, and cambrick and other goods at severall times and in severall shipps from Ostend"[135]
Camlet coate with silke buttons
Camlett
Camlett bed
Camels haire ("soone after the said ship had receaved in her said lading at Scanderoone which consisted in galls camels haire cordivants skinns and other goods shee departed and sett saile from thence to come for England")[136]
Cammells haire ("upon the Tuesday about noone hee sawe her arrive and come to Galley key with about only fifty baggs of cotton wooll and camells or goates heire")[137]
Campachina (alt. campecha) [wood][138]
Campecha wood ("the second bill of lading annexed wherein are mentioned nynety and fower pipes of Canary wyne, and one hundred and sixty peeces of campecha wood, and thirty bundles of salsaperilla, and two baggs of cacao")[139] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor Campeche wood, logwood, wood of Haematoxylum campechianum used as a dyestuff. Wikipedia.
Canopie
Canopie bedstedd [IN THE NURSERY] "ITEM: a canopie bedstedd with a canopy and 4 curtens of yellow perpetuana 1 fetherbed and boulster 1 pillow and 1 yellow rug"[140]
Canopy bedsted
Cannopyes
Canvas ("j pack quarter xx webbs of canvas")[141]
Canvisse matrisse
Caps
Capps
Caracca hydes ("the said 54 Caracca hydes and the said chest of tortoise shells")[142]
Carackas hides ("his factor loaded aboard the said shipp the Morning Starr then lying at Santa Cruse in Teneriff an hundred large or Carackas hides (marked as in the margent), to be transported in the said shipp to Amsterdam")[143]
Carpet of greene cloth for a long table
Carpetts
Carpetts embroidered on cloath
Carpetts of Turkyke worke
Cassock with silver buttons ("One Cassock with silver buttons worth 4 li 10 s")[144]
Caster hatts SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[145]
Castila wools ("Segovia woolls and Castila woolls are commonly used and imployed in this Commonwealth aswell for making of felts and hatts as for cloths, and a very great quantitie of each of the said sorts of wooll, namely aswell of Castila as of Segovia is vended and wrought some into cloth and some into hatts every yeare in England and this hee saith was and is said and notorious, which hee knoweth having for theise sixteene yeares bin acquainted with the said commodities and having for theise nine yeares last or thereabouts dealt therein for himselfe as a wooll-seller and a haberdasher of hatts...hee beleeveth that there are yearely one yeare with another the number of foure thousand baggs of wooll and upwards of the said sorts spent and imployed in the making of felts and cloth in this Commonwealth and sold and there is a lesse quantitie spent one yeare with another in the said manufactures, but rather more, for some yeares there is asmuch or about asmuch spent in this citie along besides what is vended and imployed in other parts and places of the nation, which hee knoweth having had dealing in the said commodities for greate quantities for the said nine yeares last...hee hath heard from experienced merchants and as hee beleeveth from very good ground there are yearly more of the said sorts of woolls by two or three thousand baggs spend and imployed in this Commonwealth than in all fflannders....Amsterdam and other parts in Holland are places where woolls of the sorts aforesaid are usually stored and laid up, and it is usuall to have woolls of the sorts aforesaid sent from those places into England to be here sold, because here they doe yeald a greater price and valew, which hee knoweth by meanes of his said dealing, and having bin partner with Mr Scot a haberdasher a greate dealer on those woolls, to whom there have bin woolls consigned from Holland of this deponents knowledge... the later part of the yeare namely about September and October is the time for the importation of the greatest quantityes of the said Segovia and Castila woolls from Spaine into this Commonwealth and that in the Springe or former part of the yeare a much lesse quantitie is usually imported than in or about the monethes aforesaid which hee knoweth for the reasons aforesaid, And saith that this present yeare there hath not bin any considerable quantitie of the said sorts of wools imported into England (saving those in question) by reason of the differences betweene England and the dutch, for that of his knowledge the said sorts of wools produce here a better price by fifteene or twenty in the hundred since midsommer last than they did the last yeare,"[146]; SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[147]
Castor hatts ("the said Burges did lade and put on board the said ship eight castor hatts which this deponent sawe on board the said ship at Fallmouth"[148]; "fowerteene castor hatts, 12 whereof were in a chest, and two in a hat case")[149]; COMMENTARY: xxx; SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[150]
Cazarra hydes ("the foresaid ffour and ffifty Cazarra hydes")[151]
Chamblet (alt. chamblett, chambletts)
Chamlet
Chamlet say
Chamett coate
Chard kersies ("Fairfax and Barnsley's account of sales of Chard kersies; Leghorn; 20 Sept. 1642")[152]; COMMENTARY: Colin Greenstreet Chard is a town in the English county of Somerset.
Chests of hatts ("the sayd two chests of hatts as by the invoice of them delivered unto him appeareth were worth one hundred and two pounds tenn shillings sterling or thereabouts in England but what profitt they would have yeilded at Bantam or else where in the East Indies in bartering or selling hee knoweth not"[153]
Cheese cloath ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] Ellen of ffeversham Thomas Balden master...24 peeces of cheese cloath", 1658)[154]; COMMENTARY: Pseudonymous Zippyman818 notes that both butter muslin and cheesecloth are used in modern cheesemaking. In this modern usage, cheesecloth is a loosely woven cloth used for lining colanders, making draining sacks, covering air-drying cheeses and bandaging both hard and soft cheeses, and butter muslin is a tightly woven cloth used for draining, pressing and bandaging both hard and soft cheeses.[155] Muslin predates cheesemaking cheese-clothes as a cotton-fibre textile, with many uses, including clothing and upholstery. Zippyman818 gives a further primary source example from 1602, in which canvas appears to be the cloth used for cheese-cloths: "In May 1602, 2 1/2 yards canvas, for cheese-clothes cost 20d."[156]
Cheynies (alt. cheynes) ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[157]
Cheyney
Childbed linnen
Childrens woosted stockings ("a small box, both containeing forty two dozen of mens; and twenty nine dozen of womens, and childrens woosted stockings")[158]
Chimney cloth
China silk
Church stuffe
Claspes at his breeches
Cloake ("there was laden and put on board the said ship in the River of Thames a cargoe of goods consisting in linnen and woollen cloath, East India stuff, searges, beads, glasses, muskets, pistolls, strongwaters, brandewines, white wine and clarret, silke stockings, suits and cloakes shoes, knives, sizers combs pins, needles, thimbles, thred ffish hooks, bells, locks, lead and severall other comodityes.")[159]
Cloake lyned with velvet
Cloake lynned with squirrell
Cloake of Spanish cloath
Cloath-worker ("John Warner of Saint Olaves Hartstreet in London cloath-worker aged 45. yeares" [160]
Cloathe bed ("darke coloured cloathe bed lyned with watered tabby with curtaynes vallens comter=poynt")[161]
Cloathe gowne of a violet color ("I give to two honest poore men of Stowmarket aforesaid and to one of Stow Upland videlicet To every of them a cloath gowne of a violet color at such times and in such manner as is hereafter nominated and appointed by this my will successively the same to bee faced with yellow bayes or serge and the letters T.B. to bee set in the sleeves or breast of every gowne and those that weare the same gownes shall from time to time bee appointed by the minister church wardens and overseers of the poore of Stowmarket and Stowupland"[162]
Cloth ("one peece of fine cloth conteyning thirtie and one yards")[163]
Cloth-merchant
Cloth bed
Cloth carpetts
Cloth chaires("seaven cloth chaires")[164]
Cloth cloake[165]
Cloth cloakes
Cloth coate
Cloth curtins
Cloth funiture
Cloth gowne
Cloth of dammaske with the Queene of Bohemias marke on it[166]
Cloth worker
Clothworker
Coate
Cobbwebb lawnes ("a parcell of cobbwebb lawnes lately seized in the said shippe the Young Tobias"[167]; "about fifty foure pieces of cobbwebb lawnes taken out of the said shipp")[168]
Colchester bayes ("the said Robert Bretton of this deponents sight and knowledge bought in this citie of fiftie peaces of Colchester bayes and then going into the countrey hee the said producent ordered this deponent on his behalfe after they were died into black and colours to lade them for the Canaries")[169]
Colchester white bayes ("thirtie peeces of Colchester white bayes")[170]
Colours The following colours are listed in a 1640 or 1641 invoice of goods belonging to London merchants, apparently acquired in Italy, and transported in the Goulden ffleece of London. The colours are used in descriptions of two cases of textiles, one a case containing twenty peieces of taffeta, and the other a case containing ten pieces of coloured satin ("sattine"): azur, blacke and crimsome, black and purple, black and white, cromsoine, crimsome, greene, incarnation, incarnation and crimsome, incarnation and white, lead coller, lead coller and tawney, moskcoller, orangecoller, purple, seagreene, skey coller, skeycoller, tawney, watershell.[171]
Coloured bindeing ("sixe peeces of coloured bindeing at two shillings two pence per peece", 1654)[172]
Coloured cloths
Coloured cottons
Coloured hatts ("two packs, No 6. and 8: with coloured hatts")[173]
Coloured taffetes ("one great chest No C with sixteene pieces of coloured taffetes")[174]
Coloured satins
Coloured serges ("ffoure bales of coloured serges")[175]
Coloured velvets
Combs ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other Comodityes")[176]
Combed English wooll ("certaine baggs floating upon the sea, which they with their boate saved out of the sea, and found them filled with combed English wooll prepared for the making of stockings, to the number of seaventeene packs or baggs, all which were waterborne, and derelict")[177]
Coney wooll ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Talent of Hull Thomas Coates master...7 puncons of beast hayre 1 baskett of coney wooll...46 bundles of sackwebb, 2 [?tts] of girthwebb", 1658)[178]
Coney skinns (alt. conie skinns, cony skinns, cunny skinns) ("[DUNDEE TO LONDON] Margaret of Kircady Thomas White master...40 spindles of linnen yarne and 12. dozen of coney skinns", 1658)[179] COMMENTARY: Dr Susan Mee: A coney was a rabbit - mentioned in Gervase Markham's The English Housewife written in the early 17th century.[180] 'A conie is so called because they make cuniculos, is little holes or burrows under the ground'. Quoted in Janet Arnold's Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, 1988, p.362. PRIMARY SOURCES: Gervase Markham (1615), The English Housewife, ed. Michael R. Best.[181] SECONDARY SOURCES: Janet Arnold (1988), Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd.[182]
Conie skinns (alt. cony skins, coney skinns, cunny skinns) ("one butt of conie skinns")[183]

Three views of a C.17th conical copper alloy button found near London. Photo: The Portable Antiquities Scheme/The Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons[184]
Copper buttons ("on board the shipp the Saint John ... 7. gross of small Copper buttons")[185]

Copper ribbon ("on board the shipp the Saint John ... 136. douzen ells of Copper ribbon")[186]
Copperas (alt. copperis; copperes) ("the sayd hogsheads of copperis were to be laden aboard the sayd shipp for account of the sayd Tether to be transported to Roane", 1656)[187]; "[COLCHESTER TO LONDON] Sarah of London Hugh Paine master...22 tonns of copperas"[188]; [MILTON TO LONDON] James of Queenborough Robert Parke master...15 tonn of copperas")[189]; [FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] Partridge of Whitstable George Kempe master...27 tonn of copperas", 1658[190]; [ROCHESTER TO LONDON] Mary Ann of Gillingham John Grant master...14 tonns of copperas")[191] COMMENTARY: Colin Greenstreet Copperas (ferrous sulphate) was also known also as green vitriol. It is a dense material, which in the seventeenth century was used in the dyeing of wool and in the manufacture of ink. Copperas was produced in Kent in the late C16th and early C17th at Deptford, Queenborough on the Isle of Sheppey, and at Whitstable.[192] A major C18th production site for English copperas was at coastally located Walton in Essex, where pyrites were washed out of London clay cliffs by the river Naze and were collected on the shore by "copperas pickers".[193]
Cordevant (alt. Cordivant, Cordovan) ("about seaventeene bales of Cordevant Skins", 1659)[194] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Cordovan is supple tanned and dressed kid or goatskin originally from Cordova (now Córdoba) in Spain; also called 'Spanish leather'. The term 'cordwainer' for a worker in fine leather attests to the importance of cordovan leather as a commodity in Medieval England. C17th cordovan should not be confused with modern (shell) cordovan, an equine leather used in high-end shoemaking, or the rich red-brown colour named for this leather. SECONDARY SOURCES: OED, entries 'cordwain' and 'cordovan' (with many variant spellings); R. Turner Wilcox (1948) The Mode in Footwear, reprinted Dover Publications, 2008, pp. 9, 64.[195]
Cordivant dubbletts (alt. Cordevant, Cordovan) ("Ten Cordivant doubletts, ffifteene papers of gloves but howe many dozen they contayned he knoweth not, two bundles of leather drawers and fower bundes of leather stockings")[196]
Cordovan leather (alt. Cordevant, Cordivant) ("about 3000 pipestaves and 100 pounds of Cordovan leather which were for his this deponents owne accompt, which pipestaves hee sold for 60 gilders per thousand, and the Cordovan for 2 gilders the pound")[197]
Corrall beads ("this deponent tooke aboard at Newfoundland by the order of the said James Napper (which hee verily beleeveth was for the said Nappars sole accompt about eleven kintalls, and a halfe of drye ffish, as a private adventure which this deponent sold at Genoa, and invested the said money in corrall beads by his order, to the about the vallue of thirty two peeces of eight")[198] COMMENTARY: Paula CordiMarmor: Coral was thought to have protective properties, and strings of coral beads are frequently seen in C17th portraits of young children, as are rattles with branches of coral for teething. SECONDARY SOURCES: Francesca Scantlebury, "Coral in Early Modern Costume", The Costume Society Blog[199]
Corse stockens
Cotton cases
Cotton woolls ("Ciprus cotton woolls are usually and ordinarily putt in very great baggs, which cannot be stowed without very great paines and difficulty, more especially when a shipp draweth nere to her full lading, having already receaved the most considerable quantity of her cargo")[200]
Cotton yarn (alt. cotton yarnes) ("at Scanderoone there were there laden aboard her [the Anne] about one hundred baggs of galls, about one hundred bales of cotton yarne, and other goods")[201]
Cotton wool (alt. cotton wooll) ("72 baggs of cotton wool")[202]
Cottons ("having aboard her a quantitie of marchandizes consisting in XX cottons and callicos XX XXX XXX factor XXX account taken aboard her on the coast of Cormandel was carrying XX XXX for Bantam for which place the said goods were XXXX and were provided XXXXX to be ther XXXXXX")[203]
Couch of redd shagg plush with a yellow cover to it
Counterpaine (alt. Counterpane, Counterpoint, Counterpointe, Counterpoynt) ("ITEM one sack Cloath bottome bedstead with two paire of Rodds foure Cloath Curtaines and vallons lined with ?Sarsenett, Teaster headpeece and Counterpaine with Cases on the pillows", 1666)[204] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: A counterpane or counterpoint is a bedcover; a counterpane with valances, tester, curtains, and pillowcases made up the standard textile "furniture" for a bed. (F. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870, pp. 18-22 and passim.[205] SECONDARY SOURCE: Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870.[206]
Counterpane of dimitee ("a counterpane of dimitee for a bed wrought with blacke silke")[207]
Counterpointe (alt. Counterpaine, Counterpane, Counterpoint, Counterpoynt) ("fower peeces of hangings of image tapstry-worke, and one counterpointe, for a bed of the same", 1583/84)[208]
Counterpoint of purple serge ("One Bedstead, matt, cord, & rods, 1 feather bed bolster 1 pillow 3 blanketts 1 rugg 1 sute of curtains & vallance counterpoint of purple serge", 1679)[209]
Counterpoint of tapestry ("Item one counterpoint of tapestry, with one counterpoint in the old parlor, xlvj:s viij:d.", 1583/84)[210]
Counterpoynt (alt. Counterpaine, Counterpane, Counterpoint, Counterpointe) ("black cloth bed counterpoynt")[211]
Course canvas ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Merchants Love of Newcastle Christopher Shadforth [master]...150 yards of course canvas", 1658)[212]; ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] Edward of ffeversham Esaiah Rye master...20 bundles of course canvas quantity 100½ ells", 1658)[213]
Course cloath ("besides the sayd tenn bales, fower nests of truncks, fower full conteyning flaxe and twenty peeces of narrow lockerams and halfe a peece of Tregar or course cloath, and sixe peeces of broad lockerams"[214]
Course hatts
Course linnen cloth ("the shipp the King David ariving before Saint Martins neere Rochell in or about November last was by the frost and ice hindred from taking in her lading till ffebruary following, in which moneth shee was there laded by the producents Monsieur Thevanien and Monsieur Pagez in company with this deponent and the arlate Henry Tersanitten with two hundred and fourtie tonnes of barley, one hundred sacks of meale, nineteene bales of course linnen cloth and six and thirtie bales of paper, all to be delivered at Cadiz")[215]
Course sheets ("two paire of new course sheets for servants")[216]
Course yarne ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] ffortune of Kircaldy Mathew Anderson master...2 hundredweight of course yarne")[217]
Courser sorte of dyaper ("two paire of very fyne Holland sheets two paire of courser sort")[218]
Courser sorte of dyaper of ?dieworke
Covering of tapestry
Coverlet (alt. coverletts)
Coverlet of white and black
Coverletts
Coverlidd
Coverlies ("In the lower garretts...foure coverlies")[219]
Cow hides ("hee is not certaine but there may be more bull hides and fewer cowhides, or more cow hides and fewer bull hides, but for the number of hides bull and cow hides together hee beleeveth them to be as followeth within tenn or twelve hides more or lesse in the whole)")[220]
Cow hornes
Cow hydes
Cowlett
Cowyres (alt. cowries)[221]
Crimsoine
Crimson bed
Crimson damaske
Crimson rug (In the garden chamber...a fetherbed and boulster 1 pillow 2 blanketts and a crimson rug", 1638)[222]
Crimson taffety quilt
Crimson velvet
Cross stitch
Cross stich needle work carpet
Cunny skinns (sme as Coney skinns) ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...252 loose cunny skinns")[223]
Cupboord cloth
Cupbord clothes of needleworke
Curtaines of moehaire ("my curtaines of moehaire and their valence")
Curetens
Curtens of read and greene sarcenett
Curtens of sarcenet
Cushion-cases of tapestry
Cushion cloth ("my best laced cushion cloth")[224]
Cutcheneale (= cotcheneale) ("The clayme of Christopher Boone of London merchant for severall parcells of silver and ?cutcheneale heretofore specially claymed by Adrian Goldsmith of Antwerpe having bin seized in the shipps the Sampson Salvador Saint George and Morning Star and since legally transferred to him the sayd Christopher Boone")[225] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Cochineal (Spanish cochinilla) is a dye stuff made of the dried bodies of Coccus cacti, a scale insect which feeds on cactus in Mexico and elsewhere. Cochineal produces a variety of red shades, and was used in combination with woad and dye-woods to produce a range of purples and greys. SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) 'Cochineal', Wikipedia entry[226], (2) Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England.[227]
Cutting house
Cutting roome


D


Damask curtines
Damaske (alt. damask)
Damaske cupbordcloth
Damaske napkins
Damaske sideboard cloaths
Damaske tableclothes
Damaske towells
Damaske window curtains lined with searge ("damaske window curtains lined with searge", 1681)[228]

Damaskillias ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[229]; COMMENTARY: Dr Marcin Krygier suggests that the term "damaskillias" is derived from the Spanish "damasquillo". Edward A. Roberts (2014) identifies the term damasina as equivalent to damasquillo, and defines their meaning as "a light cloth resembling damask".[230]
Dammaske dyaper ("one long towell of fyne dyaper called dammaske dyaper")[231]
Dantzike cloth ("another merchant of Munniken Dam named Cornelius Zacharius laded a pack of Dantzike cloth...and that Hance Jarianson (or having some such name) a Dantziker laded 150 rolls of course linnen or stocking, and saith that all the said lading was to be dischardged at Amsterdam")[232]
Darke coloured cloathe bed ("darke coloured cloathe bed lyned with watered tabby with curtaynes vallens comter=poynt")[233]
Darnix (alt. Dornix; Dornicks; Darnacle) ("one ffeidebodster with all the furniture belonge unto that with the beddinge and redd ruggs as it standeth in the greate darnix chamber in Stradford Langthorne over the parlor", 1625[234]; "[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Sarah of Yarmouth William Waters master...1 trusse of darnix", 1657)[235]; "a window curtin darnix over the door", 1669[236]; COMMENTARY: Elizabeth Pimblett notes that darnix or dornix used repeated patterns, and has been recreated as wallhangings at a C16th townhouse named Plas Mawr in Conway, North Wales[237]; Wikipedia The Wikipedia entry for 'Dornix' states that it was a wool and linen fabric, first used in the C15th. The fabric originated in the town of Doornik in the C15th. Its manufacture spread to Lille and to Norwich. It was a coarse cloth, and was used in beds, hangings, and curtains.[238]; SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) 'Dornix', Wikipedia entry[239]
Deere skinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Rachell of Leith Richard Everit master...1 small pack quantity 24 deere skinns 1 matt quantity 26 ffox skinns 80 [?Lanch] skins", 1658)[240]
Diaper ("such goods as the sayd Moulson had on board for his owne accompt as hatts shooes bootes sayes, broadcloath, stuffes, diaper linnen and the like")[241]
Diaper napkins
Diaper tableclothes
Diaper table cloths
Diaper towells
Dieworke
Dimitee ("10 yards of dimitee at x:d")[242]
Dimity window curtains
Dimmitees (alt. dymithy; dimity) ("Thomas ?Constable gunner of the sayd shipp and slayne att the tyme of surprizall in Trapany had aboard her att the tyme of the sayd seizure for his own accompt several peices of moka?rres, dimmitees, silke stockings clothes and other things which were as this deponent beleiveth of the cleare value of forty pounds sterling")[243]
Doggskinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Gift of God Daniell Conseston master...5 packs of doggskinns quantity 1500", 1658)[244]
Doe skinns ("[PLYMOUTH TO LONDON] Sarah of London George Hudson master...21 buck and doe skins")[245]
Dornix (alt. Darnix; Dornicks; Darnacle) ("Item two old carpetts of dornix, with ij cupbord clothes of the same, vj: s viij: d", 1584)[246]

Doublet (Alt. Doublett, Dublett) ("finding him without shooes doublet or other necessaries hee gave him some old cloathes to cover him")[247] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor:Doublets were men's sleeved garments, fitted to the waist and heavily structured with interlinings and padding. Early C17th doublets had short 'tabs' below the waist that became longer with changing fashion, and then disappeared entirely around mid-century, allowing the billowy shirt to show between the doublet and breeches. The long-reigning fashionable man's costume of doublet, hose, and cloak disappeared for good after Charles II introduced the new suit of vest and 'tunick' or coat in 1666 (A. Ribeiro (2005), Fashion and Fiction, p. 211[248]; S. Vincent (2003), Dressing the Elite, p. 13.[249]). Doublets were also adopted by women, a 'mannish' fashion that drew the ire of reformers. SECONDARY SOURCES: Aileen Ribeiro (2006),Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England. [250] Susan J. Vincent (2003), Dressing the Elite: Clothes in Early Modern England.[251]

Doublet of ffrench chamblet ("one cloake and doublet of ffrench chamblet worth 1 li 5 s", 1653)[252]
Doubletts ("ten Cordivant Doubletts at 19 s per peece", 1635)[253]; ("Twenty two yards of black bayes, Ten Cordivant doubletts, ffifteene papers of gloves but howe many dozen they contayned he knoweth not")[254]
Dowlaix ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Richard and Susan of Dover Christopher Dewson master...2 halfe peeces of lockroms: 1 halfe peece of dowlaix 1 remnant of Holland. 2 peeces of callicoes and 1 peece of cambrick)[255]
Downbedd
Draper
Dressed calve skins ("[MILTON TO LONDON] Speedwell of Milton Richard Samon master...9 dozen of dressed calve skinns")[256]
Dressed white cloths
Dresser cloathes
Dressing boxes (alt.. dressing box) ("druggs, wine dressing boxes, shooes and such like merchandizes")[257]
Drest sheeps skinns ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Bachelor of Yarmouth Ezekiah Trotter master...90 small bundles of drest sheeps skinns", 1658)[258]
Druggs (= drugs) ("hee hath ?two of his owne shipp chests which are full of druggs for his owne account"[259]; "two small skinns of druggs, two small barrells of druggs")[260]
Dry horse hydes ("[BERWICK UPON TWEED TO LONDON] Robert and Benjamin of Newcastle Michill Mordy master...4 dry horse skins")[261]
Dry hydes
Dubbletts (Alt. Doublet, Doublett) ("twentye two yards of black bayes, and soe many Cordivant dubbletts")[262] See Doublet.
Dyaper (" the finest sorte of dyaper of dyed worke")[263]

Dyde linen
Dyde sleezes
Dye house
Dyed ffustians
Dyed silke
Dyed worke
Dyeing stuffe (alt. dying stuff) ("some fatts and baggs of dyeinge stuffe")[264] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Any substance that will yield a dye; today usually 'dyestuff' of 'dye-stuff' (OED). In practical terms, 'dyestuff' refers to leaves, roots, tree bark, minerals, lichens, and similar materials, as gathered or pre-processed for dyeing. This processing may include simple drying, or shredding, grinding, or similar steps to reduce the bulk of the dyestuff before shipping. SECONDARY SOURCES: General background, 'Natural dye', Wikipedia entry.[265]
Dyer
Dying stuff ("480 bundles of dying stuff")[266]


E


East Countrye buckrams ("about twelve day last past this deponent at the request of the arlate Symon Smyth came to the sayd Smyths house in Seethinge Lane to viewe certayne East Country buckrams which had then bene lately suncke (as the sayd Smyth tould him) in the river of Thames in a shipp which came from the East Countrey, which buckrams this deponent viewed and is well acquainted with the condition of them (beinge a uphoulster by trade, and dealinge much in those commodityes) and sayeth that if the sayd buckrams had bene drye and well conditioned they would have yeilded and bene worth six shillings six pence per peece but they were and are dampnifyed and lesse worth to be sould by reason of the sayd wett two shillings and six pence in every peece and are not worth to be sould above fower shillings per peece")[267]
East India quilt
East India stuffe (alt. East India stuffes) ("the time arlate this rendent was sent by the said Edmund Cowse to Virginia with a quantity of goods videlicet 7?1 pipes of wine and no more as he beleeveth 2: chests of white earthen ware one bale of paper and noe more 20 peeces of East India stuffe called pantadoes, and a parcell of red earthen wares worth nothing at all as he beleevth, and a small quantity of salt, and no other goods as hee beleeveth")[268].
East India stuffe lyned with callicoe

['Alces alces, or European Elk', height: 170-210 cm at shoulder, weight: 200-360 kg (female), 380-850 kg (male), lifespan: 12-25 years; see 'Wild Sweden' web resource

Elands skinne (alt. elk skin) ("one elands skinne", 1649)[269] COMMENTARY: Dutch historian Mark Ponte notes that "Eland" is Dutch for the Eurasian Elk (alces alces), which is closely related, but distinct from the North American moose (alces americanus).[270] He provides several Dutch language examples showing the transportation of elk hides ('eland huiden') by sea. The first example, dating from 1663, concerns the salvage of a ship with 380 dried elk skins near the city of Rouen. The ship and captain were from Rouen and the skins were loaded for the Amsterdam merchant Abraham Chapman, probably destined for the city of Amsterdam.[271] The second example is a notarial deed from 1684 about the Dutch ship Gouden Krui that stranded on the way from from Arkhangelsk to Amsterdam, with amongst other thing 'eland huiden' (elk skins).[272] Dutch curator, researcher and author Menno Jonker notes that elk skins were used in C17th clothing, giving the example of the use of the skin for "the so called 'kolder', a yellow sleeveless jacket - worn by militiamen".[273] Costume researcher Paula Marmor notes that both ox hide ("buffalo") and elk hide were used in the making of buff(e) coats or 'kolder'. She highlights the work of military specialist Keith Dowen (2015) on the origins, production, design and construction of seventeenth century buff coats.[274] Textile historian Viveka Hansen notes a 1776 observation by Anders Sparrman from the Cape Province (5 Jan. 1776). ‘Eland, or Kaapse Eland, (the Cape elk, or more properly the elk-antilope), is a name given by the colonists to a species of gazelle which is somewhat larger...than the hartbeest...’. Colin Greenstreet suggests that this C18th example probably reflects the Dutch or Afrikaans influence on the European naming of African species, and that C17th examples of intra-European trade are likely to refer to the Eurasian Elk (alces alces).SECONDARY SOURCES: Keith Dowen, Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, vol. XXI, no. 5, March 2015, pp. 157-188[275]; Image of Heerenkolder', 1660-1670', Centraal Museum Utrecht[276]
Elephants teeth (alt. eliphants teeth)
Embroiderer
Embroidery
English allam ("[WHITBY TO LONDON] ffrancis of Whitby Thomas Lynskell master...60 tonns of English allam")[277]
English allom ("[WHITBY TO LONDON] Batchelor of Whitb Christopher Hill master...34 tonns of English allom", 1658)[278]
English combe wooll ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Charles of Dover Thomas Kyte master...10 packetts quantity 500 pounds of English combe wooll", 1658)[279]
English coney skins ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] William and Edward of Newcastle Richard Elbrough master...800 English coney skins", 1658)[280]
English cordage ("[BOSTON TO LONDON] Providence of Boston William Younger master...8 tonns of English cordage 400 stone weight of English rough hempe", 1658)[281]
English drest flax ("[STOCKTON TO LONDON] Prosperous of Whitby Thomas Crowe master...50 pounds of english drest flax", 1658)[282]
English flax ("[FAVERSHAM TO LONDON] Thomas of ffeversham Nicholas Partridge master...2 load of woald 2 packs of English flax"[283]; [SANDWICH TO LONDON] Endeavour of Sandwich Edward Horwood master...7 sacks of English flax", 1658)[284]
English flox
English goate skins ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Timothy of Ipswich John Martin master...12 otter skinns", 1657)[285]
English hempe [SEE ALSO FFEMBLES, alt fimble] ("[BOSTON TO LONDON] Abigaill of Boston John [?HXXX] master...2 tonns of English rape oyle 6 tonns of English cordage...9 stone weight of English hempe and ffembles. 3 baggs of thrumm 1 bagg of English ffeathers")[286]
English poldanis ("[IPSWICH TO LONDON] James of Ipswich John Beardwell master...10 bolts of English poldanies", 1658)[287]
English puldanis[288]
English roached allam ("[STOCKTON TO LONDON] Prosperous of Whitby Thomas Crowe master...13 tonns of English roached allam", 1658)[289]
English rough hempe ("[BOSTON TO LONDON] Providence of Boston William Younger master...8 tonns of English cordage 400 stone weight of English rough hempe", 1658)[290]
English woad [SEE ALSO "WOAD"] ([BORRESON TO LONDON] ffortune of Kircawdy Mathew Anderson master...1 barrel of English woad")[291]
English wooll ("combed wooll, being English wooll prepared for the making of stocking")[292]; [293]
English yarne ("Providence of Boston William Younges master...16 winches of English yarne"[294]


F


Fading colour satin ("in a paper six ells of white and six of fading colour satin", 1653)[295]
Feathermaker
Feathers ("thirtie baggs of feathers which were bought and laden by him this deponent at Bayon"[296]; "feathers cost 6 stivers and a halfe per pound and soe they were bought")[297]
Feathers for hatts
Felt hatts SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[298]
Felt woolls ("Castilla wools are of two sorts namely felt woolls and cloth woolls, and accordingly they are used")[299]
Felts ("Hugh fforth did in the moneth of ffebruary 1656 cause to be laden and put on board the interrogate shipp the ffrancis and John whereof the interrogate Lawrence Browneing was master, then lyeing in the River of Thames and bound for Bantam interrogate two chests conteyning sixe and twenty beavers and thirteene felts marked and numbered as in the margent...to be transported in her for Bantam")[300]; "Segovia woolls and Castila woolls are commonly used and imployed in this Commonwealth aswell for making of felts and hatts as for cloth"[301]
Ferret silk
Fether boulster
ffell wooll (alt. ffellwooll) ("two baggs of ffell wooll")[302] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: 'Fell wool' is wool removed from sheepskins sold to the leather trade, or from the skins of sheep sold for meat. It was bought up by "fellmongers, wool dealers, and staplers" (P. J. Bowden, The Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England, pp. 66, 82[303]) and sold on to the textile trade. It is contrasted with 'fleece wool', that is, wool shorn from living sheep. SECONDARY SOURCE: Peter J. Bowden (1962) The Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England.[304]
ffells
ffellwooll COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Same as 'ffell wooll', q.v.
ffembles (alt. fimble) ("[BOSTON TO LONDON] Abigaill of Boston John [?HXXX] master...2 tonns of English rape oyle 6 tonns of English cordage...9 stone weight of English hempe and ffembles. 3 baggs of thrumm 1 bagg of English ffeathers", 1658)[305]; COMMENTARY Dr Stefan Hessbrüggen-Walter highlights an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary for "fimble": "The male plant of hemp, producing a weaker and shorter fibre than the carl hemp n. or female plant. Formerly also the fibre of this as prepared for use. Also more fully, fimble hemp."
fflannell ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Lion of Yarmouth Samuell Nixon master...33 pieces of fflannell")[306]
fflaxe (alt. flax; flaxe) ("the arlate shipps were laden with wheate fflaxe and Iron")[307]
fflaxen sheets
fflemmish lace ("being at Cadiz in the yeare 1652: in the moneth of October of the same yeare did see certaine fflemmish lace and linen cloath in the hands of Peter Jansen de Yonge, which hee told this deponent did belong unto the said James Pincquet")[308]
fflemmish stuffes ("all the said goods being fflemmish stuffes linnen and lace")[309]
fflemish yarne ("the interrate James Pinquett did in the moneth of November of and in the said yeare send one tunne of fflemish yarne marjed No.I.P.3. by one Peter de Keyser master of, and aboard the shipp the Keyser of Ostend to David Clinquert aforesaid then being at Sevill in Spaine, and saith the two baggs of ryalls of eight now Ccaymed were and are the proceed of the said tunne of
yarne")[310]
fflock
fflower worke ("I intreate you to imploy said monyes soo many pieces of callicoes as they shall reach unto; to bee exactly according to the patterns I heere inclosed send you both for colour and fflower worke, being for my owne private use and ffreinds")[311]
ffox skinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Rachell of Leith Richard Everit master...1 small pack quantity 24 deere skinns 1 matt quantity 26 ffox skinns 80 [?Lanch] skins", 1658)[312]
ffranjinsense ("two chests of ffranjinsense")[313]
ffreizes ("nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes")[314]
ffrench chamblet
ffrench serges[315]
Fine and rich stuffes
Fine cloth
Fine diaper napkins
Fine dutch matting
Fine demetye
Fyne dyaper called dammaske dyaper
Fine East India stuffe lyned with callicoe
Fine flax
Fine fflanders linnen
Fine fflaxen sheetes ("Lynnen:...10 paire of fine Holland sheetes 8 paire of fine fflaxen sheetes", 1664)[316]
Fine goods
Fine hemp
Fine hempe sheets
Fine Holland sheetes ("Lynnen:...10 paire of fine Holland sheetes 8 paire of fine fflaxen sheetes", 1664)[317]
Fine lagee silke
Fine linnen
Fine linnen cloath
Fine losney flax
Fine marlin
Fine Rhine hemp
Fine scarlett cloth
Fine sheetes
Fine slotias
Finest sorte of dyaper of dyed worke
Flanders lace (alt. fflander lace)
Flanders linnen ("upon the 26. of ffebruary 1652 by the said John de Vos of Ostend severall goods and Merchandizes videlicet Rissells stuffs, Flanders linnen and laces to his said ffactors Gerard Riper and others", 1653)[318]
Flatt boulster[319]
Flax (alt. flaxe) (("a parcell of flax to be brought unto Roscoe")[320]
Flaxen cloth
Flaxen napkins
Flaxen sheets
Flaxen table clothes
Flaxen towells
Flock work hangings
Flocke boulster (alt. fflock boulster)
Flox ("[COLCHESTER TO LONODN] Seaflower of Colchester Humphrey Bryant master...2 baggs flox")[321]
ffloramides ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, Twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke Adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[322]
Florence taffeta
Flowery-coloured cloths
Flowrd sattin mantle
Freizes (alt. frizes) ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[323]
French hatts
French linnens ("by the foresayd letters of advise sent to him from James Pinequet and sayd Juan Henricques de Messa he is given to understand that the foresayd linnens are french linnens videlicet made in ffrance and that they were laden att Rohan by Jaques ffemanel aforesayd (who is a frenchman and a subiect of the King of ffrance) but for the accompt of the sayd James Pinquet who was and is a fflandrian borne and inhabitant of Antwerpe")[324]; "lockerams and any other french linnens are at that island and other the Canarie Islands prohibited commodities and therefore yet with all well knoweth that lockerams and all other ffrench linnens notwithstanding sayd prohibition are usually and frequently landed and sold by merchants whoe trade thither and knoweth that such merchants who have such commodities to sell there doe frequently by giveing some gratuities to the officers of the King of Spaine procure a connivance of the sayd officers for the landing and sale of such goods there, And this hee knoweth to be frequent amongst merchants and factors there resident to procure such connivances for gratuities and this deponent hath [?XXX] for a gratuitie procured connivance of the sayd officers for the landeing and sale of the like prohibited commodities videlicet of lockerams and all other ffrench linnens"[325]
Frenge of damaske and murrey velvett
Frendge of redd silke and silver ("one bedsteed of beeche paincted with read and silver with one tester of scarlet belonging to the same imbrodered with some silver and some copper upon blacke velvett with frendge of redd silke and silver and v curtens of sarcenett, the coulor white and reade . . . x li", 1583/84)[326]
Fringe (alt. curtaine fringe)[327]
Fringed cloth bordered with needleworke
Frizes (alt. freizes) ("ten bales of white serges conteyning one hundred peices of serge and sewall sorts of bayes and frizes then remaining in a warehouse belonging to the said William Pym at Saint Malo aforesaid"[328]
Fugard sattin cushions
Furrs SECONDARY SOURCES: Viveka Hansen, 'The fur trade in the North American colonies - Observations of a mid-18th century traveller', in 'Textilis', no. XXXVII, online resource[329]
Fustian blanckets
Fustians
Fustick ("a parcell of sassaperilla and other druggs, and some Brazill wood and fustick")[330] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor:Fustic or fustick refers to two different dye-woods that produce colourfast yellows. 'Young' fustic is derived from the wood of the smoketree or dyer's sumach (Cotinus coggygria), native to Europe and Asia, and was imported into England from Venice via Zante and the Morea. 'Old' fustic is the wood of dyer's mulberry (Maclura tinctoria) which is native to the tropical New World. Old fustic only became available in England in the mid-C.17th. SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Cotinus coggygria', Wikipedia entry[331]; 'Maclura tinctoria', Wikipedia entry[332]; Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, pages 167-168.[333]
Fyne dyaper ("one long towell of fyne dyaper called dammaske dyaper")[334]
Fyne goods
Fyne table cloth ("one fyne table cloth", 1666)[335]
Fyne woollen blanketts


G


Galls (alt. gaulls) ("the sayd two chests of galls as by the invoice of them delivered unto him appeareth were worth one hundred and two pounds tenn shillings sterling or thereabouts in England but what profitt they would have yeilded at Bantam or else where in the East Indies in bartering or selling hee knoweth not"[336]; "soe soone as the said ship [the Anne] delivered her said salt at Scanderrone, the said William Malym the master and company of the said ship. did take aboard her, a lading of cottons, galls and other peeces to be transported in her to this port of London")[337]; COMMENTARY: Tracey E. Griffiths notes "Oak galls & valonia, the acorn cups of a species of oak, both high in tannins, were used to dye black in 15-16C Venice. here is no mention of oak bark though in either of the 2 extant Venetian dyeing manuals. Members of the Royal Society planned an English translation of one of these, the Plictho of Gioanventura Rosetti, in 1662, but there is no sign it was ever completed." PRIMARY SOURCES: Gioanventura Rosetti, Plictho of Gioanventura Rosetti: Instructions in the Art of the Dyers Which Teaches the Dyeing of Woolen Cloths, Linens, Cottons, and Silk by the Great Art as Well as by the Common, trans. Edelstein and Borghetty (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969)
Galloone
Gaulls (alt. galls) ("having already received and laden aboard her one hundred baggs of wool and 400 baggs and upwards of gaulls")[338]
Gilt lather
Ginghams
Girthwebb ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Talent of Hull Thomas Coates master...7 puncons of beast hayre 1 baskett of coney wooll...46 bundles of sackwebb, 2 [?tts] of girthwebb", 1658)[339]
Gloves
Goat skins
Goate skins in the haire ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Marchants Love of Newcastle Christopher Shadforth master...21 dozen of goate skins in the haire", 1658)[340]
Goates skinns ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Elizabeth of Burnt Island John Neems master...9 packes of goates skinns")[341]
Goats wooll ("he this rendent did see the said goats wooll weighed presently after the landing therof at the Custome house, and he saith that none of the said woolls were diminished between their landing and weighing and that he knoweth not whither they were diminished after"[342]; "every pound of the said goats wooll is worth 1 s 4 d here in London")[343]
Goates heire ("upon the Tuesday about noone hee sawe her arrive and come to Galley Key with about only fifty baggs of cotton wooll and camells or goates heire")[344]
Gold and silke lace ("Apparrell...a night gowne of blacke figured sattin with gold and silke lace", 1638)[345]
Gold and silver braide
Gold and silver mohaire ("this deponent was to receive there were seaven small bales or packs marked and numbred as in the margent, which according to the invoice of the lading thereof, contained twenty six peeces of gold and silver mohaire, otherwise, ffrench watered tabbies of gold and silver, but saith that this deponent comming ther to receive them, there was one of the said packs or small bales wanting and quite gone, and the other six (as appeared to this deponent) had bin opened, and saith that by the said bale that was wanting and by what was imbeazald out of the six other packs, there were twelve peeces of the said goods quite gonne and lost")[346]
Gold hat band
Gold stuff
Gold wast buttons ("one paire of Gold Wast Buttons for Breeches ... One paire of Gold wast buttons for Breeches Enameled", 1671)[347]
Gorgett
Gotes skins
Gowne faced with sattin
Gowne of blew cloth ("to each man and woman a gowne of blew cloth a pare of shoes a paire of stockings and three ells of bowlas cloth for shirt or shirts")[348]
Gownes ("I give and appoint the summe of one hundred pounds to be disposed and given by my executors to sixty poore ould men and forty poore old women for poor gownes (that is to say) to every of the same poore men and women twenty shillings a peece to buy every of them a gowne in which I will that they attend as poore mourners att my funerall if I die in England", 1642[349]; "I give to two honest poore men of Stowmarket aforesaid and to one of Stow Upland videlicet To every of them a cloath gowne of a violet color at such times and in such manner as is hereafter nominated and appointed by this my will successively the same to bee faced with yellow bayes or serge and the letters T.B. to bee set in the sleeves or breast of every gowne and those that weare the same gownes shall from time to time bee appointed by the minister church wardens and overseers of the poore of Stowmarket and Stowupland", 1689)[350]
Gray broad cloath
Gray conny skinns ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Marchants Love of Newcastle Christopher Shadforth...2 hogsheads of gray conny skinns quanity 2000", 1658)[351]
Grasse greene taffety ("I give and bequeath into my daughter Anne the grasse greene taffety bedd with the quilt and velvet chaires and all the bedding and furniture thereunto belonging my East India cabbinett my small dyamond lockett and my enamelled watch in gold and my silver chafingdish", 1671)[352]
Grasse greene silke curtaines ("In Mr Aylmers chamber...one suite grasse greene silke curtaines and vallence and a canopye suite of greene silke and two window curtaines and two carpetts of the same old iij: li x: s", 1664)[353]
Gray painted parragon
Gray camlett coats lined with serge
Gray carpett
Gray rugg
Graye riding cloke[354]
Great baggs of wooll
Green bayes hangings
Green cloath couch ("one green cloath couch", 1671)[355]
Green cloth ("In the old parlor...an old skreene of green cloth with the frame", 1638)[356]
Green cotton ("In the hall...two drawing tables a frame table 7 formes covered with green cotton and an old elbow chaire", 1638)[357]
Green parrogan counterpoynt
Greene bayes (alt. green bayes) ([INVENTORY: Right honourable Sir John Kelying late Lord Cheife Justice of his Majestties Court of Kings Bench] "In the closett in the parlor...the roome hung with greene bayess", 1671)[358]
Greene carpett with ffringe ("a green carpett with ffringe and in my ould trunck a Holland sheete with three breadths a paire of Holland pillowbears a damask table cloth and twelve napkins a pair of fine callicoe sheetes with three breadths and a pair of pillowbears a pair of fine hempe sheets ")[359]
Greene curtaines ("old greene curtaines", 1686)[360]
Greene hangings ("old greene hangings")[361]
Greene silke quilt
Greene taffety
Grey bayes ([INVENTORY: Right honourable Sir John Kelying late Lord Cheife Justice of his Majestties Court of Kings Bench] "In the back garrett...one old skreene with grey bayes", 1671)[362]
Grey broad cloath ("one gray broad cloath contayninge twentye eighte yards worth in his iudgement ten shillings per yard")[363]
Grey serge
Grogeram yarne (alt. grogaran; grogoran) ("wax, grogeram yarne silke, cotton yarne and allum to be carried to ligorne"[364]; "the Grogoran yarne schedulated of Begbazar in the Turks dominions")[365]
Guilt leather chaires
Guilt leather hangings[366]
Guinney cloths ("two parcels of tappaselle comonly called Guinnney cloths")[367]


H


Haberdasher ("Richard Ayling of the parish of Saint Nicholas Acons London haberdasher, aged 32 yeares or thereabouts...having for theise nine yeares last or thereabouts dealt therein for himselfe as a wooll-seller and a haberdasher of hatts"[368]; "Mr Jeremie Sambrooke of London haberdasher nowe generall accomptant to the East India company"[369]; "William Pembridge of the parish of Saint Magnus London haberdasher, aged 42 yeares or thereabouts...hee is a haberdasher by trade, and useth to waite aboard shipps for the prize office")[370]; "John Holme of the parish of Saint Magdalens Milkestreet London haberdasher, aged 30 yeares or thereabouts...hee this deponent being a warehouse-keeper under the Commissioners for prize goods, hath had the custodie of many parcells of sweete oiles, brought in as prize, and hath delivered out many parcells that have bin sold by them")[371]; COMMENTARY: Viveka Hansen notes that haberdashers in the C18th "were frequently mixed with all sorts of textile trades & some sold coffee, chocolate, snuffs, swords & cutlery etc."; SECONDARY SOURCES: Hansen, Viveka, ‘Haberdashers – 18th & 19th Century Trade Cards’, TEXTILIS, (November 18, 2015)[372]
Haberdasherie ("two packs of haberdasherie"[373]; "a hamper of haberdasherie, containing tweesars")[374]
Haberdasherie wares ("the goods or the most part of them which were taken and seized in the said shipp were and are as hee beleeveth linnens or haberdasherie wares, not knowing certainly the species or qualities of them, they being in packs and caskes, and hee alsoe beleeveth that they are of the growth or manufacture of ffrance, and saith they were laden by ffrench merchants"[375]; "three fatts of haberdasherie wares (whereof two are very small) for this deponents owne accompt, laden by him at Haver de Grace"[376]
Haberdashery wares ("[IPSWICH TO LONDON] Willingminde of Ipswich Daniell Bicker master...1 hogshead of haberdasher wares returned", 1658)[377]
Haberdashery wars ("haberdashery wars, as hatts, tape needles pins ... and such like")[378]
Haire [KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Salem of Hull Richard Lyndall master...1 bagg of haire")[379]
Haire cloth ("[ROCHESTER TO LONDON] William and Mary of Millayle Richard Atwood master...2 bundles of haire cloth", 1657)[380]
Haire cloathes ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Content of Yarmouth Joseph Waters master...10 haire cloathes", 1657[381]; [NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] ffortune of Newcastle William Sanders[?XX] master...6 packs of haire cloathes", 1658)[382]
Half hydes ("whole drayed hydes in hayre, and some were sydes of leather tann'd which hee reckoned and accompted as hydes severally though in truth they were but half hydes"[383]
Halfe silke
Halfe silke adorettas
Hampers of apparell
Handcherchiefs ("12 handcherchiefs", 1653)[384]
Handkerchiefs
Hangings about the roome
Hangings about the roome of paragon & gilt lather[385]
Hangings of gilt leather
Hangings of gilded lether and red cloth in panes
Hangings of image tapstry-worke (" fower peeces of hangings of image tapstry-worke")[386]
Harlem stuff ("one case of Harlem stuff")[387]
Hart hydes[388]
Hart skins ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Peeter of Preston John Carr master...50 hart and roe skins 16 otter skinns", 1658)[389]
Hatbands ("divers goods were found about them the sayd Viber and his mate, as gloves, taffatie hoods, hatbands and other things, and some of the sayd shipps company that came back from the persuite brought alsoe some taffaty hoods and other things which they found floating on the water")[390]
Hat band in gold in severall pieces
Hat bands
Hat case ("fowerteene castor hatts, 12 whereof were in a chest, and two in a hat case")[391]
Hatts ("a hogshead of hatt"[392]; "which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[393]; COMMENTARY: Textile historian Viveka Hansen notes that "The Folger Shakespeare Library, Digital Image Collection has very interesting images of fur hats, feathered caps etc | Search words: “Hollar, Wenceslaus 1647”. SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog.[394]
Hayre
Headcloath
Head cloth
Headcloth
Headcloth of red serge
Hedcloth
Hemp (alt. Hempe, adj. Hempen) ("68 bundles of hemp"[395]; "bundles of rough hemp")[396] Hemp is Cannabis sativa, an annual herbaceous plant native to central and western Asia but widely grown in England in the Early Modern Era. Both Thomas Tusser and Randle Holme describe the growing and processing of hemp. Hemp was used for rope-making and heavy canvas, but Cox and Dannehl (2007) point out that fine linen-like textiles were also made of hemp (Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820[397]). PRIMARY SOURCES: (1) Thomas Tusser (1573), Fiue hundreth points of good husbandry[398]; (2) Randle Holme (1688), The academy of armory.[399] SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl (2007) 'Hemp', in Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820[400]; (2) Ben Swenson (2015), 'Hemp & Flax in Colonial America' in The Colonial Williamsburg Journal.[401]
Hempe sheets ("a green carpett with ffringe and in my ould trunck a Holland sheete with three breadths a paire of Holland pillowbears a damask table cloth and twelve napkins a pair of fine callicoe sheetes with three breadths and a pair of pillowbears a pair of fine hempe sheets ")[402]
Hempen sheets ("The Linnen - ITEM 9 p and 1 of holland sheets 19 p of fflaxen Sheetes 26 p and i of hempen Sheets, 1685)[403]
Hempen sheetes ("Lynnen ... ten pre of hempen sheetes", 1664)[404]
Hessens ("one hundred and forty eight pices of Hessens")[405]
Hides ("this deponent saith That coming in August 1653 last past as a passenger from Cadiz in Spaine to Saint Malloe ffrance in a certaine shipp named the Saint Vincent hee well well remembreth that some dayes before the says shipps depture from Cadiz he saw one Raphael da Luna who was the servant of the acclate Manual Lowij Carnero carry on board the sayd shipp a good parcell of Indian hides, which hee sayd were his masters, and he consigned the same to William Claviel att Saint Mallo who does busines as a factor for the sayd Carnero")[406]
Hides in the haire ("100 hides in the haire", 1655)[407]
Holland cupboard clothes
Holland curtains
Holland napkins
Holland pillowbears ("a green carpett with ffringe and in my ould trunck a Holland sheete with three breadths a paire of Holland pillowbears a damask table cloth and twelve napkins a pair of fine callicoe sheetes with three breadths and a pair of pillowbears a pair of fine hempe sheets ")[408]
Holland pillowboards
Holland plaine
Holland quilte
Holland sayes ("five cases of Holland sayes")[409]
Holland sheets ("one paire of new holland sheets and a paire of pillowbeeres...3. paire of large sheets...one paire of holland sheets of 2 bredths & a half...3 paire of holland sheets att xviij:s...8. paire of flaxen sheets at 13:s)[410]
Holland stitched
Holland tableclothes ("3 holland tableclothes lenth xij ells att 3:s")[411]
Holland towells ("5 holland towells lenth 9 ells ½ at 8:d")[412]
Hollands woollen cloth[413]
Hoods
Horse clothes
Horse hydes ("[BOSTON TO LONDON] Providence of Boston William Younger master...90 horse hydes", 1658)[414]
Hose
Houndscott blacke sayes (one bale contayninge fiftye peeces of Houndscott blacke sayes No. 9 whereof cleare abord the said shipp at Dunkirke two hundred and seaventeene pounds ten shillings fflemish money or thereabouts which being reduced into sterlinge money accomptinge the exchange at 33 s 4 d fflemish per pound sterling amounteth to one hundred thirtye pounds tenn shillings or thereabouts")[415]
Hundscot sayes (alt. hounscott; hunscotts) ("one fardell or pack of white hundscot sayes"[416]; "one fardell or pack of this third marke No: 5. with 25 peeces of black hunscot sayes"[417]
Hydes ("whole drayed hydes in hayre, and some were sydes of leather tann'd which hee reckoned and accompted as hydes severally though in truth they were but half hydes"[418]


I


Imbroiderer ("Richard Atkinson of the parish of Saint Michael Crooked Lane London citizen and imbroiderer of London aged 30 yeares...hee [Richard Atkinson] is and then was a tobacconist namely a dealer and worker in making up and cuttng tobaccoes, and hath used that imployment for theise fifteene yeares last or thereabouts, and by that meanes hee hath had occasion for goeing to sea and take notice of Virginia tobaccoe hogsheads")[419]
Imbroydery's (alt. imbroydres) ("you will have received Mr Metholds, and my order for the dispose of the imbroydres, for the best price that can be obtained for them...tis well the imbroydery's have sustained no detierment by them sending to Agra, so great a distance from that place where Mr Pearce left them, and saith he gave no order for their sending to Agra, if it had been my single consernes I would rather had them back for England than so to much undervalued them")[420]
Imbroydres
Incarnation[421]
Incarnation and white[422]
Indecoe
Indian carpett
Indian hides ("this deponent saith That coming in August 1653 last past as a passenger from Cadiz in Spaine to Saint Malloe ffrance in a certaine shipp named the Saint Vincent hee well well remembreth that some dayes before the says shipps depture from Cadiz he saw one Raphael da Luna who was the servant of the acclate Manual Lowij Carnero carry on board the sayd shipp a good parcell of Indian hides, which hee sayd were his masters, and he consigned the same to William Claviel att Saint Mallo who does busines as a factor for the sayd Carnero")[423]
India hydes
India satten quilt
Indian quilts
Indico (alt. indigo) ("a little before the arrivall of the said ship Peace at Nevis, the tobacco plants indico and sugar canes were there at at the other Leeward islands, spoyled and rooted upp by reason of hurricanoes")[424]; "they had allsoe receaved seaverall other letters from theire agents and correspondents there wherein the manner of the said takeing away of the said tenne barrells of indico belonging to the said producent was menconned and expressed")[425]
Indicoes ("hurricanoes and stormes had spoyled most of the sugar canes, tobaccoe, and indicoes in those places, and had rooted many of them up")[426]
Inward curtains
Irish sticht carpetts
Irish stitch cushions
Irish wooll ("[FFALMOUTH HARBOUR TO LONDON] Katherine and Ann of ffalmouth William Rogers master....27 casks of Irish wooll the resideue of 51 casks formerlybylicense restored Derrick Westen[?ce]")[427]
Italian silks


J


Jacket ('IN THE MEN-SERVANTS CHAMBER ... IT[EM]. x [i.e. ten] suits of a course blew cloth w:th hite lace a blew Jacket a ?apatched plush jacket & viij course Hatts", 1638)[428]
Jems
Jerkin ("4 sacks a Coat or Jerkin 2 hatts and two wastcoats and a hatchet", 1650)[429]
Jersey stockings ("a dozen and half of Jersey stockings", 1650)[430]
Jewells


K


Kersey (alt. Kersie, Kersye, Carsie, Carsay) "[SANDWICH TO LONDON] Samuell of Sandwich Isaac Robins master...24 peeces of broadcloath and kersey ret")[431] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Kersey is a dense, warm cloth made from thick yarn spun of inferior grades of carded wool, produced in England from the Middle Ages and widely exported. SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Kersey (cloth)', Wikipedia entry[432]; Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, page 5.[433]
Kersie ("[MALDON] Samuel of Maldon Martin Carer Master...clxxx yards of Kersie Per Cert", 1657)[434]
Kersyes (alt. kersies) ("the said goods amounted to a great vallue they being bayes, [?WX?sh] plaine cottons [?XXXX] million ffustians, Norwich goods, stockings, and kersyes, and such like comodityes"[435]; "lynnens, mercerie wares, silke stuffs, kersies and other commodities to the valew of about tenn thousand pounds fflemish, and after laded the same at Amsterdam";[436] "a peece of kersey of twenty two yards and an halfe", 1655)[437]
Kid skins
Kilmornock stockins
Kipps ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Rachell of Leith Richard Everet master...220 kipps and hydes", 1658)[438]


L


Lace ("two small packs with white lace"[439]; "two small bundles of the eighth marke, one with white laces and the other with silver and gold lace counterfeit No 19.")[440]
Lagee silke (alt. legee silke) ("Item 22 lb of fine Lagee silke at 18: s per lb")[441]
Lambe skinns with the wooll ([LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...3 fardles of lambe skins with the wooll")[442]
?Lanch skins ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Rachell of Leith Richard Everit master...1 small pack quantity 24 deere skinns 1 matt quantity 26 ffox skinns 80 [?Lanch] skins", 1658)[443]
Large sheets
Lawnes ("one smale box of cambricke and lawnes")[444]
Lead coller and tawney[445]
Leather ("some were sydes of leather tanned which hee reckoned and accompted as hydes severally though in truth they were but half hydes")[446]
Leather capps
Leather carpett
Leather chaires
Leather drawers ("two bundles of leather drawers and fower bundles of leather stockings", 1637)[447]; COMMENTARY: US based museum director Jeffrey Hopper suggests that the 1637 reference to leather drawers "is early enough to be outer drawers, breeches or leggings. OED notes shift in 17th c for meaning of under. Colloquially, as children we were told to “put on our drawers before going out.”"
Leather hangings ("[IN THE DINING ROOME] ITEM one [?sqnob] with twelve chaires two stooles and two carpetts embroidered on cloath two cabinetts two pictures one large looking glasse quilt leather hangings about the roome six albaster figures two baggs window curtaines and rodds foure Spanish tables one peace of fine Dutch matting one paire of brasse andirons fire shovell, and tongs of brasse one paire of doggs with brasses a paire of bellowes a furnace a painted matt in the chimney [TOTAL =] xxxvij li x s")[448]
Leatherseller
Leather stockings ("two bundles of leather drawers and fower bundles of leather stockings", 1637)[449]
Legee silke (alt. lagee silke) ("amongest the rest one bill of lading for one baile of legee silke and one faugot of Sufa silke to be carried to Ligorne")[450]
Leith wind hose (alt. Leith wynd hose; Leith-wynd-hois) ("[LEITH TO LONDON] John of Leith John Greenlaw master...130 paire of Leith wind hose", 1658)[451] COMMENTARY: Dave Henderson explains these are hose made at Leith Wynd, and that a wynd is similar to an alley off a main street. The Dictionary of the Scots Language presumes that Leith wynd or Leith wynd cloth was made by the beadsmen in Trinity Hospital at the foot of Leith Wynd, and states that a woollen manufactory was established at this location in 1619 by the Edinburgh Town Council.[452]
Linen (alt. linnen, lynnen) ("seaven and fourtie bales of linen laden aboard the shipp the hare in the ffeild of Middleborowe", 1655)[453] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Linen, a textile from the fibers of the flax plant, was rivaled only by wool in its importance in Early Modern life. Washable, as wool was not, linen in various weights and qualities was used for shirts, smocks, collars, and cuffs; for tablecloths, towels, and napkins; and for linings and working clothes. As canvas, sailcoth, and sacking, it was an important component of commerce. Linen's role in everyday life waned with the widespread availability of cotton in the C.18th. SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Linen', Wikipedia entry[454]; Leslie Clarkson (2003), “The Linen Industry in Early Modern Europe”, in The Cambridge History of Western Textiles.[455]
Linen covers
Linnen breeches
Linnen cloath (alt. lynnen cloth; linnen cloth) ("these hides of this deponents knowledge who went a passenger in the Saint Vincent came safe to the sayd Claviels hands, and hee as this deponent is well assured did here sell the same and convert the proceed thereof in to Linnen Cloath for accompt of the sayd Carnero")[456]
Linnen manufactories
Linnen scotch cloath ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Henry of Barwicke Thomas Haye master...7 peeces pf linen scotch cloath quantity 120 ells", 1658)[457]
Linnen yarne "[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Judah or JUdeth of London William Blythe master...250 spindles of linnen yarne", 1658[458]; [DUNDEE TO LONDON] Margaret of Kircady Thomas White master...40 spindles of linnen yarne ans 12. dozen of coney skinns", 1658)[459]
Linnens ("saith that the said cargo of linnens were laden by Monsieur Le Mot Arman, and consigned to this port to the said Mr fford")[460]
Linsey woolsey ("[SANDWICH TO LONDON] Susan of Sandwich Thomas Wheeler master...4 [?packs] of Linsey woolsey")[461]; [SANDWICH TO LONDON] Susan of Sandwich Thomas Wheeler master...1 peece of Linsey woolsey", 1658)[462]; SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Linsey-woolsey', Wikipedia entry[463]
Livery gowne
Livery lace ("IN THE CUTTINGHOUSE ... ITEM: for 2 or 3 sorts of Livery lace", 1661)[464] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Woven trimmings for male servants' livery. In C.18th, this featured colourful patterns in worsted or silk, sometimes enriched with gold or silver thread (L. Baumgarten (2002), What Clothes Reveal, page 48.[465]) SECONDARY SOURCE: Linda Baumgarten (2002). What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America.[466]
Lockroms ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Richard and Susan of Dover Christopher Dewson master...2 halfe peeces of lockroms: 1 halfe peece of dowlaix 1 remnant of Holland. 2 peeces of callicoes and 1 peece of cambrick)[467]
Lockerams ("besides the sayd tenn bales, fower nests of truncks, fower full conteyning flaxe and twenty peeces of narrow lockerams and halfe a peece of Tregar or course cloath, and sixe peeces of broad lockerams")[468]
Logwood (alt. log wood) ("hee was in the said yard (out of which the said logwood was taken and sent on board the said ship) whilest, some of the said wood was weighing, and sawe most of it sent, and brought aboard the said ship, the said yard being neere the waterside and neere unto the place: where his ship lay")[469]; "whither hee doth not know beleeve or hath heard that the said fower tonnes and ten sticks of logwood were sold by the said Jeremiah Sweetman or some other of the said English that arrived in the said shippe unto some of the inhabitants of Barnstaple Biddeford or ?Northam before the same were arrested by authority of this Court"[470]; "1339 sticks more of Log or Brazele wood conteyning 102 quintalls")[471]
Loinings ("there being other originall papers, letters, writings which hee thought were of more concernment hee wrapt them up in a paire of loinings and a shirt, the better to keepe them dry")[472]
London cloath ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Henry of Barwicke Thomas Haye master...1 peece of London cloath", 1658)[473]
Long belts ("26. long belts and 12. wast belts", 1653[474]
Long cloth
Long cushion
Longe Bocking bayes ("twenty peeces of longe Bocking bayes")[475]
Long pillows
Long reele yarne ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Security of Leith Alexander Clarke master...700 spindles of long reele yarne")[476]
Long table clothes of damask worke[477]
Long towell of fyne diaper called dammaske dyaper ("one large table cloth one douzen of napkins and one long towell of fyne dyaper called dammaske dyaper", 1666)[478] 1666)
Long towells ("two lomg towellsand four douzen napkins", 1666)[479]
Loome lace
Loose cunny skinns[480]
Low gray cloth chayres ([INVENTORY: Right honourable Sir John Kelying late Lord Cheife Justice of his Majestties Court of Kings Bench] "In the chamber on my Ladies chamber...5 low grey cloth chayres")[481]
Lucca taffeta
Lyned hangings of paragon
Lyned with callicoe
Lyned with greene sarsenett
Lyned with watered tabby
Lynned with squirrell
Lynnen
Lynnen for a childe[482]


M


Mader (alt. mather, madder) ("about the 20th of July last this deponent sent the said ship Cock from Rotterdam to Glascoe, with a ladlng of iron mader, starch, fruits, sugar, deales and wine for account of John Anderson the elder and Ninian Anderson"[483]; "2 bales of mather marked EB")[484]
Madder (alt. mader, mather) ("some sorts of fruits, gums, drugs, madder, &c. &c.")[485] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Dye stuff from plants of the genus Rubia, cultivated as a source of red dye and pigment since ancient times. The species grown in Europe was Rubia tinctorum or common madder. Madder was grown in England, but was also imported in quantity to serve the textile trade. Eric Kerridge calls it "next to woad, the commonest dye stuff" (Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, page 167[486]). With various mordants, madder produces a range of reds, oranges, and roses; together with woad, it produces purples and murreys; and in other combinations it is a component of a wide range of colours including blacks, browns, and tawnies. Madder remained an important commercial crop until the introduction of aniline dyes in the C.19th. SECONDARY SOURCES: (1)'Rubia', Wikipedia entry [487]; (2) Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England [488]
Marchantaylor
Mather ("two bales of mather")[489] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Alternate spelling of "madder", q.v.
Matt
Meduses ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[490]
Mercerie wares ("lynnens, mercerie wares, silke stuffs, kersies and other commodities to the valew of about tenn thousand pounds fflemish, and after laded the same at Amsterdam")[491]
Messalapan stuffes
Milliner
Minikin bayes (alt. minneken bayes, minnekin bayes, minnekin baies) ("two bailes of ninetin bayes containeing foure peeces of blacke minikin bayes marked and numbred as in the margent")[492] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: 'Minikin baize' or 'minikins' are baizes woven of finer yarn, and were a C17th specialty of Coggeshall. (E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, p. 92.) See also Baies. SECONDARY SOURCES: Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England.[493]
Minneken bayes (alt. minikin bayes, minneken baies) ("two bales of minneken bayes marked and numbred as in the margent"[494]
Minnekin bayes (alt. minikin bayes, minnekin baies) ("the said three bales of perpetuanaes and two bales of minnekin bayes were at the time of their lading aforesaid worth the summe of two hundred twenty eight pounds twelve shilings and six pence sterling money")[495]; "two bailes of minnekin bayes containing foure peeces of black minnekin baies"[496]
Minck skins
Minke skinns ("the captaine of the said man of warr...came aboard the said ship the Pine-apple [A DUTCH SHIP] and violently tooke and carried away out of the same twenty whole beaver skinns and 4. otters skinns and foure other skinns called minke skinns and about 150. pounds of Virgina tobaccoe, the said beaver skinns being each worth 10. gilders in the whole 200. gilders and the said otter skinns and minke skinns worth fortie gilders and the said tobaccoee at 10. styvers the pound was worth in all five and seaventy gilders the whole summe amounting to three hundred and fifteen gilders or one and thirty pounds ten shillings sterling")[497]
Minx skinns ("the said barrill att the time of the said lading containeing ninety eight beaver skinns, seaven otter skinns. and fower minx skinns")[498]
Mixed kersies
Mixed searges
Mixed serges ("the usuall rate of mixed serges of twelve pounds weight per peice is about three pounds ten shillings the first penny"[499]; "by the experience he hath of Colchester serges and the usuall prices they yield in Holland where he hath often tymes sold such serges, he doth verily believe that the sayd twenty pieces of mixed serges were att the tyme of their lading with the Customes and other dutyes discharged to be sold in Holland worth eighty pounds sterling or thereabouts, and the sayd ten pieces of white serges which the Customes and other dutyes worth the sume of seventy pounds sterling or thereabouts and that the sayd twenty and ten peices would then have yeilded the sayd respective prices or neere thereabouts att Rotterdam")[500]
Mixed Spanish cloths
Mixt shiffer ("one pack No 2 with ninety peeces of mixt shiffer, silke, and wooll, of this 5th marke")[501]
Mohaire
Mohaire bedd ("my mohaire bedd in the hall chamber", 1686)[502]
Mohaire funiture
Mohaire yarne
Morea silke ("item a bale of Morea silke wt. 160: lb neat, at 7: s the small lb")[503]
Mort kid skinns[504]
Mort lambe skinns[505]
Mourning gowne
Moyhaire yarne ("Item 33 li of moyhaire yarne")[506]
Muffle
Murrey velvett ("two old chaires, th'one covered with murrey velvett ; th'other with black velvett")[507] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor "Murrey" is mulberry colour, a brownish red or maroon. OED has citations from c. 1400.
Muscovia hides
Muscovia linnen yarne ("hee saith hee at Harlem paid for part of his goods being Muscovia linnen yarne")[508]
Muscovia skinns
Muscovie hides
Muscovy leather
Myrabalins


N


Nantando curtaines

Napkin presse("a napkin presse")[509]
Napkins Damask napkins; flaxen napkins
Napkins of birdseye worke [FROM A 1666 INVENTORY OF A RICH LONDON MERCHANT] ("two dozen of napkins of birdseye worke")[510]; COMMENTARY: M.J. Logue suggests that "birdseye is a weave - a sort of diamond shaped pick", and cites an example of modern napkins made from "birdseye cotton diaper cloth"
Napkins of lavander bloome worke [FROM A 1666 INVENTORY OF A RICH LONDON MERCHANT] ("one douzen of napkins of lavander bloome worke)[511]
Napkins of rose and crame worke [FROM A 1666 INVENTORY OF A RICH LONDON MERCHANT] ("two douzen of napkins of rose and crame worke")[512]; COMMENTARY: Textile historian Viveka Hansen states that from her experience of listed linen in Swedish C17th-18th estate inventories etc, she thinks it most likely… | Damask woven linen napkins with a pattern named “rose and crame worke” (quite common that patterns are difficult to identify). Hansen adds that the "crose and crame" pattern would have been in the weave and most probably in the complicated damask technique. Colin Greenstreet had suggested that "rose and crame worke" might refer to "rose design embroidery and macramé lace or fringe of some type", citing Sylvia's Book of Macramé Lace (London & New York, 1882), which refer specifically to a "course holland towel, embroidered with coloured cotton and white thread, and finished off at each end with knotted fringe".[513] M.J. Logue is unconvinced of this explanation, arguing that macramé was only introduced to England into the court of Queen Mary in the late C17th. However, the above mentioned napkins, if with macramé fringe, could have been imported from Italy, or elsewhere. They appear to have belonged to Elizabeth Ashburnham, the third wife of wealthy London merchant Sir John Jacob, who survived Jacob's death. Logue also argues that "worke" was a common term for a weave, which is consistent with Viveka Hansen's expert opinion. Logue also notes that "'crame' apparently means bought from a pedlar, usually a Scots expression" and that "Sir John Sene (1681) says 'Ane pedder is called ane merchand or cremer, quha beirs ane pack or creame upon his back'" (De verborum significatione).
Napkin presse
Naples orgazine ("no. 3 item one other bale of Naples orgazine w:t 223 lb neat, at 21 s per lb")[514]
Naples tammins ("one bale of Naples tammins")[515]
Narrow cheynies ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[516]
Narrow lockerams ("besides the sayd tenn bales, fower Nests of truncks, fower full conteyning flaxe and twenty peeces of narrow lockerams and halfe a peece of Tregar or course cloath, and sixe peeces of broad lockerams"[517]
Narrow perpetuanes ("shipped by grace of God in good order and well conditioned by Captaine George Cock John ffenn Esquire and James Temple in and upon the good shipp called the William whereof is master under God for this present voiage Thomas Hubbard and now rideing att anchor in the River of Thames and by Gods grace bound for the Coast of Ginea to say seaventy foure chests of sheetes foure bayles of broad perpetuanes two bales ditto narrow one bayle of Hensrott sayes three bales of broad tapsells six bales of [?brawles] one chest of musketts one bale quarter twenty [?broad] tapsells and foure [?XXXX] ten bales of ruggs videlicet five broad and five narrow one bale of carpetts..."[518]
Needles
Needleworke ("cupbord clothes of needleworke")[519]
Nettworke curtaines ("In the pintadoe room...foure nettworke curtaines and vallons tester and headcloth of callicoe one nettworke couch")[520]
Night gowne
Normandye canvas (alt. Norman canvas) "[RYE TO LONDON] Providence of Rye William Key master...3 [?parcels] of browne and white Normandye canvas quantity 100 ells dutyes paid"[521]; [DOVER TO LONDON] Providence of Dover Robert Le Gent master...Vincent de la Barr indigenous 6 bales of Normand canvas quantity 10 ells duty paid 18 Junn last", 1658)[522]
Northern cottens [KINGSTON TO LONDON] Priscilla of Hull Edmond Perry master...1 pack [?at] 34 Northern cottens")[523]; SECONDARY SOURCES: Norman Lowe, The Lancashire Textile Industry in the Sixteenth Century (Manchester, 1972)[524], A.P. Wadsworth & J. de L. Mann, The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600-1790 (Manchester, 1931)
Northern cottons ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Merchants Love of Newcastle Christopher Shadforth [master]...Northern cottons", 1658)[525]; SECONDARY SOURCES: Norman Lowe, The Lancashire Textile Industry in the Sixteenth Century (Manchester, 1972)[526], A.P. Wadsworth & J. de L. Mann, The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600-1790 (Manchester, 1931)
Northern woollen cloath ("[KINGSTON UPON THAMES] Talent of Hull Thomas Coates master...3 packs quantity 42 kerseyes and 1 pack quantity peeces and remnants of severall sorts of Northern woollen cloath", 1658)[527]
Norwich goods
Norwich stuffes (alt. Norwich stuffs, Norwich stufts, Norwich-stuffs) ("forty peeces of Norwich stuffes", 1656)[528] COMMENTARY: Dr Susan Mee writes: According to Ursula Priestley, who has written widely on the subject, 'the term Norwich Stuffs came into use in the early part of the seventeenth century to describe a specialist range of light-weight fabrics, usually of mixed composition, that evolved from the New Draperies' (Ursula Priestley, "The Fabric of Stuffs: The Norwich Textile industry, c.1650-1750," Textile History, Volume 16, Number 2, Autumn 1985, pp.183-184[529] See also, Ursula Priestley, The Fabric of Stuffs: the Norwich textile industry from 1565, The Centre of East Anglian Studies, 1990[530]). Norwich Stuffs were light-weight worsteds, made using long stapled wool which was combed to align the fibres - thus resulting in a smooth worsted yarn. Other fibres, particularly silk, were mixed with the worsted in order to add interest. Norwich master weavers were very skilled at making slight variations in the weave of the fabrics so that each could be promoted as a 'new' product. The main characteristic of Norwich Stuffs was their sheer variety - 'of infinite varietie and difference of Sortes, Figures, coullours and prices' (Priestley, Textile History, Volume 16, p.184). In order to try and avoid imitation, Norwich Stuffs were recognized by a Parliamentary Ordinance in November 1650: An Act for regulating the making of Stuffs in Norfolk and Norwich.[531] PRIMARY SOURCES: "An Act for regulating the making of Stuffs in Norfolk and Norwich", British History Online.[532]SECONDARY SOURCES: Ursula Priestley, "The Fabric of Stuffs: The Norwich Textile industry, c.1650-1750," Textile History, Volume 16, Number 2, Autumn 1985, pp.183-184, (online edition (subscription required)); Ursula Priestley, The Fabric of Stuffs: the Norwich textile industry from 1565, The Centre of East Anglian Studies, 1990, ISBN 978-0906219294.
Norwich stuffs (alt. Norwich stuffes, Norwich stufts, Norwich-stuffs) ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Content of Yarmouth Jospeh Waters master...2 tts Norwich stuffs", 1657)[533] (See Norwich stuffes)
Norwich stufts (alt. Norwich stuffes, Norwich stuffs, Norwich-stuffs) {"a Quantity of Statute Lace, Norwich Stufts ...", 1659)[534] (See Norwich stuffes)
Norwich-stuffs (alt. Norwich stuffes, Norwich stuffs, Norwich stufts) ("[The Russia, or Muscovy Company, 1672: Benjamin Glanville & ?George Cocke, assistants] The commodities that this Company exporteth, are woollen-cloths of all sorts, both drest and dyed, kersies, bayes, cottons, perpetuances, fustians, Norwich-stuffs, lace, thread ...", 1672)[535] (See Norwich stuffes)


O


Oaken bark ("Hopewell of Maidstone Morgan Hall Master...two load of oaken bark"[536]; COMMENTARY: Heather Knight notes that oak bark was use for tanning animal hides, adding that "tanners use cattle skins whereas tawers used other skins such as sheep, goat and deer". In 1575 the Recorder of London informed the Lord Treasurer of England that "the ouse of Asshen barke dronke is an extreme percagon...[but] the ouse of oken barke dronke is the extremest binder that can be found in Physicke".[537]. SECONDARY SOURCES: Michael Shaw (1996), 'The Excavation of a Late 15th- to 17th-Century Tanning Complex at The Green, Northampton' in Post-Medieval Archaeology, vol. 30, 1996, issue 1, pp.63-127 [archaeologists found that cattle, horse and sheep skins were being processed][538]; L.A. Clarkson (1974), 'The English Bark Trade, 1600-1830', in Agricultural History Review 22, 136–52.
Old breeches
Old carpetts of dornix
Old chamlet coat ("an old chamlet coat and an old cloth coat both lyned with plush", 1638)[539]
Old cloathes ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[540]
Old cloth coat ("an old chamlet coat and an old cloth coat both lyned with plush", 1638)[541]
Old fashioned ffelt hatts ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Marchants Love of Newcastle Christopher Shadford master...1 box quantity 5 dozen of old fashioned ffelt hatts very course, which came formerly from London now returned")[542]
Old ffeathere boulsters
Old greene carpett
Old greene cloth
Old greene ruggs
Old hangings
Old painted hangings
Old plush suit ("am old plush suit a sattin dubblet and a paire of plush hose, 3 other old suits of apparel and 4 paire of old breeches", 1638)[543]
Old Spanish wearing clothes[544]
Old stript stuff("In the ground roome on the same ffloare with the kitchin...the hangings about the Roome being of old stript stuffe")[545]
Old suits of apparel ("an old plush suit a sattin dubblet and a paire of plush hose, 3 other old suits of apparel and 4 paire of old breeches", 1638)[546]
Old tapestry hangings ("In the gallery chamber...a suite of old tapestry hangings...")[547]
Old Turky carpet
Orangecoller[548]
Ordinary course sheets
Ordinary Naples ("At Mr Paul Docminiques house in Colman streete London, son of the said deceased were the severall goods following which were received from the deceaseds house at Tottenham heigh Crosse thither...No. 6 item one bale of ordinary Naples weight 219 lb neat, at 19 s per lb")[549]
Orgazine ("no. 3 item one other bale of Naples orgazine weight 223 lb neat, at 21s per lb")[550]
Orsoy (alt. ossoy) ("item one other bale of orsoy weightt 220 lb neat at 20 s per lb")[551]
Ossen brigs ("sent in her from London that voyage bayes, cottons, plaines and Ossen brigs and other goods to the value of fower hundred pounds sterling")[552] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Osnaburg (variously spelled) is a coarse unbleached linen cloth originally from Osnabrück in Germany. It was used for work clothes, especially shirts, and for sacking. Later (C. 19th) made of cotton. PRIMARY SOURCE: "I was offered shirts at the White Horse in Cheapside, made of Ossen briggs, for 3s 6d. apiece." [1666] (in W. Sainsbury et al., eds., Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, Volume 7, 1889.) PRIMARY SOURCE: W. Sainsbury et al., eds., Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, Volume 7, Public Record Office, 1889.[553]; SECONDARY SOURCE: Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870.[554]
Ostridge feathers ("then laden onboard the said ship severall thousands of hydes, severall bales of bees wax each bale containing about foure quintalls, a chest of ostridges feathers, a quantity of box wood and some other merchandizes which said goods and merchandizes were to be carryed and transported in the said ship Anne and Margaret to Leghorne")[555]
Otter skinns ("the said barrill att the time of the said lading containeing ninety eight beaver skinns, seaven otter skinns. and fower minx skinns"[556]; "the captaine of the said man of warr...came aboard the said ship the Pine-apple [A DUTCH SHIP] and violently tooke and carried away out of the same twenty whole beaver skinns and 4. otters skinns and foure other skinns called minke skinns and about 150. pounds of Virgina tobaccoe, the said beaver skinns being each worth 10. gilders in the whole 200. gilders and the said otter skinns and minke skinns worth fortie gilders and the said tobaccoee at 10. styvers the pound was worth in all five and seaventy gilders the whole summe amounting to three hundred and fifteen gilders or one and thirty pounds ten shillings sterling"[557]; [NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Timothy of Ipswich John Martin master...12 otter skinns", 1657[558]; "[LEITH TO LONDON] Peeter of Preston John Carr master...50 hart and roe skins 16 otter skinns", 1658)[559]
Oxe hydes ("nine hundred twenty three oxe hydes")[560]


P


Pack cloathes ("Tallent of Hull Thomas Coates master...1 bundle of pack cloathes"[561]
Pack of stuffs
Paintadoe hangings
Painted callicoes("painted callicoes")[562]
Painted cloth
Painted matt in the chimney
Painted grey parragon ([INVENTORY: Right honourable Sir John Kelying late Lord Cheife Justice of his Majestties Court of Kings Bench] "In the chamber on my Ladies Chamber... the roome hung with gray painted parragon")[563]
Paire of breeches
Pantadoes (alt. pintadoes; pintados) ("the time arlate this rendent was sent by the said Edmund Cowse to Virginia with a quantity of goods videlicet 71 pipes of wine and no more as he beleeveth 2: chests of white earthen ware one bale of paper and noe more 20 peeces of East India stuffe called pantadoes, and a parcell of red earthen wares worth nothing at all as he beleevth, and a small quantity of salt, and no other goods as hee beleeveth")[564]
Paragons ("tenn bales of goods conteyning sixteene peeces of Taunton serges, twenty sixe peeces of paragons tenn peeces of broad cheynies, fowerteene peeces of meduses, sixe peeces of black bayes, nyne hundred twenty five yards or Spanish yardes of ffreizes peeces of quarter silke, and tenn peeces of halfe silke adorettas, sixe peeces of damaskillias or ffloramides, and fower peeces of narrow cheynyes")[565]
Parcell of broad cloth
Parragon ("grey painted parragon")
Patched plush jacket
Paternoster beades
Patterns ("I intreate you to imploy said monyes soo many pieces of callicoes as they shall reach unto; to bee exactly according to the patterns I heere inclosed send you both for colour and fflower worke, being for my owne private use and ffreinds")[566]
Paynted cloth
Peice goods ("the goods carryed outwards to Cadiz as aforesayd were 400. packes of peice goods or linnen cloth ")[567]
Peltes ("[MARGATE TO LONDON] ffrancis of Margate Edward Brocke master...400 peltes")[568]
Perpetuanes (alt. perpetuanoes; perteptuano's, perpetuana's; perpetuanae's) ("serges, bayes, sayes Norwich stuffes perpetuanes, and other goods, and after the same were provided, and bought the same were shipped on board a shipp called the Mackarel to bee carried and transported to Amsterdam")[569] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Perpetuana was a type of serge, a twill-woven cloth of long-staple combed wool warps and soft, short-staple carded wool wefts. It was a light but sturdy fabric, widely exported. SECONDARY SOURCES: Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870. 'Perpetuana', p. 320.[570] Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, pp. 118-119.[571]

Penny broad ribbon
Petticoat
Persia carpet
Persia carpett
Persian carpett ("to my fourth daughter Jane Williams the some of one thousand and three hundred pounds over and above her childes parte of the thirde...and my third best Persian carpett", 1636[572]; "In the Gallery chamber...seaven Persian carpets large and small", 1677)[573]
Piece goods
Pillow beares
Pillowbeeres
Pillowes
Pinns (alt. pins) ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[574]
Pintadoe curtains and vallence
Pintadoe windowe curatine
The Pintadoe room ("IN THE PINTADOE ROOME. ITEM A bedstead couch and rods foure nettworke curtaines and vallons tester and headcloth of callicoe one nettworke couch two chaires two stooles [?suitable] one feather bed and boulster one pillow one mattress and coverlidd two blanketts one silke carpett one Indian carpett two turkie carpetts paintadoe hangings window curtaines and Rodd one case of drawers one side table a paire of brasse andirons one paires of tongs [TOTAL] xiiij li v s ij d")[575]
Pintadoes (alt. pintados) ("a packett 20. peeces of pintados which here sell at 50 li)[576]
Pintando quilt
Pladd ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...1 pladd")[577]
Plaiding ("[BURNT ISLAND] George of Preston Panns Andrew Hall master...600 ells of plaiding. 1 rowle of scotch gray cloath quantity 15 yards")[578]
Plaine cottons
Plaine gloves
Plaines ("sent in her from London that voyage bayes, cottons, plaines and Ossen brigs and other goods to the value of fower hundred pounds sterling")[579]
Pladding ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...899 ells of pladding")[580]
Playne greene cloth carpet
Plume of feathers ("signe of the plume of ffeathers at Saint Catherines staire")[581]
Plumes
Plumes of feathers
Plush
Plush chambletts
Plush jacket
Poldanis ("[WOODBRIDGE TO LONDON] Supply of Woodbridge Humphrey Battell master...110 peeces of sackcloath and poldanis"[582]; "[DOVER TO LONDON] Charles of Dover Thomas Kyte master...Thomas de La Vall: 39 bolts of poldanis damaged by salt water to one halfe vallue and 5 bolts browne hamburg slotia lynnen quantity 100 ells damaged by salt water ¼ parte...paid all dutyes at Sandwich 11 Xber last as per certificate dated 23 of the same out of the Black King of Hamburg Derrick Swarte master wracked neere Deale", 1658)[583]
Portmantle (alt. port mantle(s)) ("one portmantle with weareing linnen and some small favours and curiosities bestowed upon this deponent in ffrance"[584]; "two port mantles")[585]
Printed hanging ("in Mrs Peachmans chamber, the printed hanging")[586]
Printed linnen
Printed stuff
Purple carpett ("In the Green chamber...one purple carpett")[587]
Purple cloth bed
Purple serge
Purple strype curtaines and vallence[588]
Purple suite of curtaines


Q


Quarter silke
Quilt (alt. quilte)
Quinsborough canvas ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Willingminde of Yarmouth John Jacobs master...13 [?pieces/?parcels] of quinsborough canvas dutyes paid in detto port being damaged goods by salt water being saved in a wrackshipp ashore at Parke feild", 1657)[589]



R


Rabbets skinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...32 dozen of rabbets skinns"[590]; [BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Blessing of London Robert Hunter master...2 hogsheads quantity 230 dozen of rabbet skins", 1658)[591]
Raw hydes
Raw silke
Rawe hydes ("[LEITH TO LONDON] John of Leith John Greenelawe master...33 rawe hydes", 1658)[592]
Red and yellow earth
Red cushions stufd with feathers
Red kersey ("1 elbow chaire covered with red kersey", 1638)[593]
Red kersie cotton ("In the chamber next adjoyning [to the widdowes chamber]...a paire of red kersie cotton", 1666)[594]
Red Muscovia hides
Red rugg
Red serge ("headcloth of red serge")[595]
Red silke
Redd beads ("some corrall or redd beads")[596]
Redd damaske bedd
Redd plush couch cover embroydered ("one redd plush couch cover embroydered ", 1666)[597]
Redd searge
Remnant of camlett
Remnant of shagg
Remnant of tapestry ("In the hall...one old remnant of tapestry", 1638)[598]
Remnants of cloth
Remnants of sarge
Remnants of stuffe
Returned lynnen drapery and upholstry wares ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] Hopewell of ffeversham Phillip Butler master...1 [?tts] of returned lynnen drapery and upholstry wares", 1658)[599]
Ribbon (alt. riben)
Riben (alt. ribbon) ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[600]
Rich crimson taffety
Rich furrs SECONDARY SOURCES: Viveka Hansen, 'The fur trade in the North American colonies - Observations of a mid-18th century traveller', in 'Textilis', no. XXXVII, online resource[601]
Riding cloake
Rine hemp
Rissells stuffs (alt. Ryssels stuffs) ("upon the 26. of ffebruary 1652 by the said John de Vos of Ostend severall goods and Merchandizes videlicet Rissells stuffs, Flanders linnen and laces to his said ffactors Gerard Riper and others", 1653)[602] COMMENTARY: Mapnut and Anne Goldgar point out that Rijssels is the Dutch name for Lille or Lisle in Flanders. Michael Pearce: There is an interesting letter from 1616 asking an Edinburgh tailor to make a "blak Ryssilis grosgrane doublet and skirt of the newst fassione".[603] Paula Marmor: 'Rissels' (alt. Rissells, Ryssells, Russel, Russell, Russells, Scots Rissillis) is also the name of a type of cloth made both in Flanders and in England. Peter Taylor points out that one piece of "broad Russell" was exported to Elbing in 1616 from London. Paula Marmor: OED has citations for russells from the late C15th. Bruges produced what the English called 'satin of Bridges', which usually had a linen warp and silk fill or weft. "Rijssel, Lannoy and Armentieres also made Bridges or similar silk and linen satins" and later "turned their attention" to half-worsteds or satins with linen warps and fills of "tops" (rough wool)(E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, p. 47[604]). Norwich Russells were similar satin weaves made originally entirely of worsted yarn, but they could be made of any fibre. "Rijssel and other Continental towns had previously made satins renversis or reveches and the [Norwich] Russells Company copied these in worsted." Called in England 'reverses', these "were figured satins with damask effects" made by reversing the weave to bring the matte twill finish to the right side (Kerridge, p. 48). "An Act for regulating the making of Stuffs in Norfolk and Norwich" of November 1650 specifically excepts from its jurisdiction "such Stuffs as are under the Regulation of the Wardens, and Fellowship of the Mystery of Russel Sattins, Sattins Reverses, and Fustian of Norwich making, within the said City of Norwich".[605]. PRIMARY SOURCES: "November 1650: An Act for regulating the making of Stuffs in Norfolk and Norwich," British History Online.[606] SECONDARY SOURCES: Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, pp. 47-48 [607]; Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870, entry 'Russel (Rushell)', p. 336.[608]; E. Dunbar Dunbar (1866). Social Life in Former Days.[609]
Roane linnens ("ffrancis fforno alias van Obstal and Lewes Reynault (alias Rutharson) had at Cadiz laden for account and adventure of there the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier and John Reynault, on board a shipp called the ffortune (ffernando Gerardo Loro a spaniard commander) of the burthen of a hundred and tenn tonnes (or there abouts) with three peeces of ordnance and eighteene men, severall bales of Roane linnens, thredd and silk laces of Paris, bombazin, taffata's of Grenada, box combes and diverse other merchandizes, amounting all together with the charges of the said shipp (which belongs to the said John James fforno) to the summe of fowrscore thousand livers Tournois, to be carried and transported in the said shipp to Cartagena in the King of Spaines dominion in the West Indies. there to be vended and invested in silver and other Indian commodities for the same account and adventure of the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier, and John Reynault")[610]
Roe skins ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Peeter of Preston John Carr master...50 hart and roe skins 16 otter skinns", 1658)[611]
Rough English hempe ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Hopewell of Hull Samuell Standfield master...Thomas Bludworth indigenous...16 bundles of Rough English hempe quantity 5 hundred weight per bundle")[612]
Rough flax ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Successe of Hull Robert Acklam...1 pack of rough flax containing 9 C weight", 1657)[613]
Rubarb ("the two bales of worme seed and one bale of rubarb schedulated hee saith are of the growth of Bask and Barhar under the Dominions of the King of Juzbeck neere Persia")[614]
Ruckoo ("[At Brazil] tooke in a sort of ffish called mannettee and dying-stuff calle ruckoo")[615]
Ruggs ("ten bales of ruggs videlicet five broad and five narrow")[616]
Russia leather
Russia lether
Russian hides
Ryssels stuffs (see Rissells stuffs) ("severall good quantityes of bone lace and Ryssell stuffes which he had receyved from Ostend", 1651)[617]


S


Sable
Sable muffle ("I give and bequeath to the said Jane Seamer my daughter all my wearing apparell both linnen and woollen and also my cabbinett my black box lined with sarsnett my bible covered with blew plush and my sable muffle")[618]; "I give and bequeath more to my said deare mother my sable muffle and also such of my wearing apparel as she shall be please to make choys of for her own wearing (saving and except such as are hereafter otherwise disposed of)")[619]
Sackcloath ("[WOODBRIDGE TO LONDON] Mary Ann of Woodbridge John [?Hlinton] master...363 pieces of sackcloath")[620]
Sack cloath
Sack-cloth ("foure [?rowles] of sack-cloth")[621]
Sacking ("[ALDBURGH TO LONDON] [?CXXXer] of Aldburgh Richard Younge master...25 peeces of sacking")[622]
Sacking mattress
Sackwebb ("[KINGSTON UPON HULL TO LONDON] Talent of Hull Thomas Coates master...7 puncons of beast hayre 1 baskett of coney wooll...46 bundles of sackwebb, 2 [?tts] of girthwebb", 1658)[623]
Sad colour
Safety ribons ("690. dozen ells of safety ribons", 1653)[624]
Saffron ("and saith that in or about July last there was laded aboard the said shipp at Nantes a cargo of wine, and XXXXX, and vinegar and caskes of saffron to be carried in her for Bridges for accompt (as this deponent understood) of her said owners")[625]
Saile cloath ("The chamber over the kitchen...one bedsted with a saile cloath bottom with greene curtaines and vallons & tester"[626]; "three bailes of canvas or sale cloath marked B, six hogsheads of powdered porke, six hogsheads of powdered beef, four pipes or great vessells of pease, and 7000 lb of bisketts in baggs, two rolls of saile cloath loose, two cases with each three castors besides severall other small parcells of goods which hee now exactly remembreth not")[627]
Salt hydes ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Henry of Barwicke Thomas Hayes master...350 salt hydes")[628]
Sarcenet mantle
Sarsenet quilt
Sarsenett
Sarsnett ("my black box lined with sarsnett")[629]
Satten ribbon ("166. douzen ells of satten ribbon")[630]
Sattens ("taffetas, sattens and stuff")[631]
Sattin
Sattin mantle
Sattin morning coate
Sattin ribbon[632]
Sattin quilt
Sayes ("serges, bayes, sayes Norwich stuffes perpetuanes, and other goods, and after the same were provided, and bought the same were shipped on board a shipp called the Mackarel to bee carried and transported to Amsterdam")[633]
Scarlet coates with silver buttons[634]
Scarlet dyer
Scarlet gowne
Scarlet suit laced with gold and silver lace
Scarlett ("there were also there laden aboard the sayd shipp that voyage by Manoell Swares twenty bales of fine linnen cloath and a peece of scarlett and one trunck with hatts therein"[635]; "the two half peices of fine scarlett")[636]
Scarlett cloath (alt. scarlett cloth)[637]'
Scarlett coloured sattin morning coate ("I give more to my said sister Mrs ffrances Mann my scarlett coloured sattin morning coate to be disposed unto her presently after my decease")[638]
Scotch gray cloath ("[BURNT ISLAND] George of Preston Panns Andrew Hall master...600 ells of plaiding. 1 rowle of scotch gray cloath")[639]
Scotch ffingering ("[ABERDEENE TO LONDON] Tobias of Aberdeen James Browne master...300 ells of Scotch ffingering")[640]
Scotch linnen yarne ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...2 hogsheads of Scotch linnen yarne of 800 spindles and 200 yards of linnen cloath"[641]; "[LEITH TO LONDON] 2 bundles quantity 800 spindles of Scotch linnen yarne short reele")[642]
Scotch linnen cloth[643]
Scotch lynnen cloth ("iiij C ells scotch lynnen cloth")[644]
Scotch lynnen yarne ("ij packs quarter iij C Spindles of Scotch lynnen yarne")[645]
Scotch pladeing ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Pellican of Leith James Gibson master...2 bundles quantity 300 ells of Scotch pladeing")[646]
Scotch ticking
Scotch tykeing[647]; "[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Judah or Judeth of London William Blythe master...400 yards of Scotch tykeing", 1658)[648]
Scotch yarne ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Security of Leith Alexander Clarke master...600 spindles of Scotch yarne")[649]
Scotsh linnen cloth ("l ells Scotsh linnen cloth")[650]
Scottish linnen cloth
Scottish linnen yarne[651]; [LEITH TO LONDON] Elizabeth of Burnt Island John Neames master...2 barrells quantity 200 spindles of Scotch linnen yarne")[652]
Screene fannes[653]
Seagreene[654]
Seamens clothes ([DOVER TO LONDON] Charles of Dover Thomas Kyter master...6 chests 2 serons of seamens clothes")[655]
Seale skinns (alt. seal-skins) ("the sayd rack or derelict when shee was found as aforesayd forty tonne or thereabouts of trayne oyle but much damnified by water and about 70 tonne of empty casks about thirty bundles of hoopes, one great copper, and fower and twenty seale skinns, (and some fish and bread which was utterly spoiled by longe continuance in water)")[656]
Searge curtayn
Searge furniture ("In the blew chamber...searge hangings and searge furniture"[657]
Searge hangings ("In the blew chamber...searge hangings and searge furniture"[658]
Segovia woolls ("7 baggs of wooll of Andalusia and 51 baggs of Segovia woolls")[659]; "Segovia woolls and Castila woolls are commonly used and imployed in this Commonwealth aswell for making of felts and hatts as for cloths, and a very great quantitie of each of the said sorts of wooll, namely aswell of Castila as of Segovia is vended and wrought some into cloth and some into hatts every yeare in England and this hee saith was and is said and notorious, which hee knoweth having for theise sixteene yeares bin acquainted with the said commodities and having for theise nine yeares last or thereabouts dealt therein for himselfe as a wooll-seller and a haberdasher of hatts...hee beleeveth that there are yearely one yeare with another the number of foure thousand baggs of wooll and upwards of the said sorts spent and imployed in the making of felts and cloth in this Commonwealth and sold and there is a lesse quantitie spent one yeare with another in the said manufactures, but rather more, for some yeares there is asmuch or about asmuch spent in this citie along besides what is vended and imployed in other parts and places of the nation, which hee knoweth having had dealing in the said commodities for greate quantities for the said nine yeares last...hee hath heard from experienced merchants and as hee beleeveth from very good ground there are yearly more of the said sorts of woolls by two or three thousand baggs spend and imployed in this Commonwealth than in all fflannders....Amsterdam and other parts in Holland are places where woolls of the sorts aforesaid are usually stored and laid up, and it is usuall to have woolls of the sorts aforesaid sent from those places into England to be here sold, because here they doe yeald a greater price and valew, which hee knoweth by meanes of his said dealing, and having bin partner with Mr Scot a haberdasher a greate dealer on those woolls, to whom there have bin woolls consigned from Holland of this deponents knowledge... the later part of the yeare namely about September and October is the time for the importation of the greatest quantityes of the said Segovia and Castila woolls from Spaine into this Commonwealth and that in the Springe or former part of the yeare a much lesse quantitie is usually imported than in or about the monethes aforesaid which hee knoweth for the reasons aforesaid, And saith that this present yeare there hath not bin any considerable quantitie of the said sorts of wools imported into England (saving those in question) by reason of the differences betweene England and the dutch, for that of his knowledge the said sorts of wools produce here a better price by fifteene or twenty in the hundred since midsommer last than they did the last yeare,"[660]
Serge (alt. sarge, searge) ("green wicker chair covered with serge")[661] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Serge was originally a twill-woven silk. In C17th, English serges were twill-woven woollens with a pronounced diagonal rib. Made of long-staple combed wool warps and soft, short-staple carded wool wefts, serge was a durable medium-grade textile much used for clothing and furnishings. SECONDARY SOURCES: Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870. 'Serge', p. 344.[662] Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, pp. 118-119.[663]
Serge funiture
Serges (alt. searges, sarges) ("the producente Tomas Papillon and Lawrence Martell (both well knowne to this deponent) wrote and gave commission to Mr Nicholas XXX of Exon to buy them 5 bales of serges, of 10 peeces of serges in each Bale, and to lade them aboard the shipp the Diamond of Topsham bound for Saint Malo, and to marke them F.C. and consigne them to Marc ?John at Saint Maloe for accompt of the said producents Tomas Papillon and Lawrence Martell XX XXXX of ffrancis Calendrini, which hee knoweth because this deponent keepeth the accompte of the said Mr Papillon wrote the said letter to the said partner by their order")[664] (See Serge)
Shagg
Shashes
Sheep skins (alt. sheepe skinns) ("three lasts of wheate, eleaven baggs of wool, 2000 sheep skins, and about 20 shipp pounds of iron")[665]
Sherling sheepe skins ("[BERWICK UPON TWEED TO LONDON] Robert and Benjamin of Newcastle Michill Mordy master...70 sherling sheepe skins")[666]
Sheets and other goods suitable for Guinea
Sheetes ("seaventy foure chests of sheetes")[667]
Mixt shiffer ("one pack No 2 with ninety peeces of mixt shiffer, silke, and wooll, of this 5th marke")[668]
Sheepes wool
Shells ("three baggs or sacks of tortois shells, and five greate pots, and two smale ones of balsome or druggs, all for account of the said owners, of Amsterdam, which said shells and druggs the said Skipper bought of and from Augustin Rosetti the foresaid Genoese, who came passenger and had goods in the said shipp")[669]
Shiffer ("one pack No 2 with ninety peeces of mixt shiffer, silke, and wooll")[670]
Shirts ("two barrills of shirts")[671]
Shooes ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. Combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[672]
Shoomack ("ij C xxxj baggs Shoomac")[673]
Shorte table cloths
Shumack
Side board clothes
Silesia linnens ("a good quantitie of marchandize to the full complamant of their said tonnage, consisting in iron, Silesia linnens, sheets, knives and other commodities, to be carried on the coast of Guiney and there to be sold and bartered away for gold")[674]
Silk laces of Paris ("ffrancis fforno alias van Obstal and Lewes Reynault (alias Rutharson) had at Cadiz laden for account and adventure of there the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier and John Reynault, on board a shipp called the ffortune (ffernando Gerardo Loro a spaniard commander) of the burthen of a hundred and tenn tonnes (or there abouts) with three peeces of ordnance and eighteene men, severall bales of Roane linnens, thredd and silk laces of Paris, bombazin, taffata's of Grenada, box combes and diverse other merchandizes, amounting all together with the charges of the said shipp (which belongs to the said John James fforno) to the summe of fowrscore thousand livers Tournois, to be carried and transported in the said shipp to Cartagena in the King of Spaines dominion in the West Indies. there to be vended and invested in silver and other Indian commodities for the same account and adventure of the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier, and John Reynault")[675]
Silke (= silk)("divers other goods or bales of silke, and other merchandizes and moneys for account of the said Riccard and company"[676]; "the 5 bales of silke are of the growth of the parts and places neere Ardiveile in Persia")[677]
Silke buttons
Silke carpett
Silke embroidery (alt. silke embroiderie) ("two flower potts in silke embroiderie")[678]
Silke embroydery ("two flower potts wrought in silke embroydery)[679]
Silke fringe
Silke gownes ("the said merchandize in the said truncks consisted of linnens, and two silke gownes and two silke petticotes and some other goods of good valew")[680]
Silke hoods[681]
Silke lace ("Honnoured Sir there was sent by William Gostlin of London a parcell of gould and silver lace and one peece of silke lace amounting to 102: li 12: s 6: d unto Guiben Goddard in the month of March Anno domini 1663: per the shipp London bound for Surratt of which there hath been no returne made nor accountt yett given to him", 1664)[682]
Silke petticotes ("the said merchandize in the said truncks consisted of linnens, and two silke gownes and two silke petticotes and some other goods of good valew")[683]
Silke quilte (alt. silke quilt)
Silke quilted cusheons
Silke saye
Silke stockings (alt. silke stockins) ("the said ship the Lixon ffrigot was laden at Ligorne with oyle rice silke stockings, and rope, and some other comodityes"[684]; "Thomas ?Constable gunner of the sayd shipp and slayne att the tyme of surprizall in Trapany had aboard her att the tyme of the sayd seizure for his own accompt several peices of moka?rres, dimmitees, silke stockings clothes and other things which were as this deponent beleiveth of the cleare value of forty pounds sterling")[685]
Silke sute
Silke wares
Silke window curtaines ("In the matted chamber...two silke window curtaines and a rodd")[686]
Silver lace
Sinament colour
Sizers ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[687]
Skey coller[688]
Skeycoller[689]
Skinner
Skinns (alt. skinnes; skins) ("her lading consisted in french wines, resin, feathers, skinns and other goods of the growth and making of france")[690]
Skinns of lambes ("BURNT ISLAND] [?Bart] of Kircaldy John Gilespre master...1 pack quantity 64 skinns of lambes buck and dogg skinns")[691]
Sky colour silk
Slap-sellers-ware ("merchandizes proper and serviceable for those parts videlicet: strong waters, linnen cloath, bodies, pewter, slap-sellers-ware suites of cloathes, fruit and spieceries and other goods and merchandizes the particulars whereof this rendent cannot at present exactly call to mind")[692]; COMMENTARY: Dr Marcin Krygier suggests that slap-seller is a variant of "slop-seller". Wikipedia's entry for "slopseller" states that a slopseller was "an English merchant who sold slops: cheap ready-made clothing or rough working dress. Typically these would be butchers' aprons or articles of clothing and bedding issued or sold to sailors. The term slop was applied to an early form of hose (clothing)."[693]; Frances Owen suggests that "slaps' could be slops - short, wide-legged trousers worn by sailors, later sailors' clothes generally and extended to clothes issued to convicts transported to Australia".
Slaughtered kidskinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...378 dozen of slaughtered kidskinns")[694]
Slaughtered lambe skinns ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hannah of Leith John Taylor master...226 dozen of slaughtered lambe skinns")[695]
Slesias
Slotias ("thirty four chests of Slotias")[696]
Small baggs of wooll
Small copper buttons
Socks ("2. douzen of socks")[697]
Spanish cloth
Spanish leather capps
Spannish silke ("two bales of Spannish silke to be transported to the port of Lisbone")[698]
Spanish wools ("there were on the said Wednesay morning about foure or five baggs of Spanish wools put out of the frigot aboard her to be brought for London")[699]
Speckled wood ("Thomas Cooper one of the masters mates had speckled wood in her...there were laden aboard the sayd shipp at Seranam uppon the coast of Guina all the particular quantityes of Speckled wood, mentioned in the first schedule"[700]; COMMENTARY Identified by @Textilsnet as probably snakewood from Guiana or Surinam (Piratinera Guianensis). Among other uses, used as a textile dye-wood for an orange/yellow colour.[701]
Spotted velvet

LH side: Finished squab, plain no tufting, over stuffed anticipating compaction of wool.; RH side: Finished squab in its baize, bays, or baise cover. This is the plain baize, no nap. Destination historic house museum. Photographer Jeffrey Hopper. Used with the permission of the Warner House Association, Portsmouth, NH (USA)

Squab ("In the black parlor...1 squab...in the withdrawing roome...hangings of gilt leather 6 chaires 1 squab 1 picture one statue...in the dressing roome...calico hangings 6 chaires and stooles 1 squabb...in the chamber over part of the hall...a bedsted matt and cord feather bed and bolster table and stands 1 chaire and squabb", 1675)[702]
Squob ("The chamber of greene worke...1 chimney peice and corded bottom squob")[703]
Square cushions of needleworke
Square window cushions of tapestry
Spunyarne ("the Howse of ffreindship did want and stand in need of severall materialls and things to fit and enable her to proceed to sea, namely of tarr deales bankes sparrs quarters battens, traine oyle, spunyarne, ratlyn, thrumb, marlin houselin rosinn billetts, and suchlike comodityes")[704]
Starch ("a small caske (about the bignes of a butter ferkin) of starch which was found staved in the hold by meanes of the said storme"[705]; "by reason of the great plenty of good sound corne in England att this tyme [July 1655] very little of the foresayd wheat will be for any other use in England except for making of starch")[706]; SECONDARY SOURCES: Rebecca Unsworth, 'Food for thought: starch in the sixteenth century' in 'Un-making things' (2013), online web resource[707]
Statute lace
Stocking
Stocking sayes ("peices of long stocking sayes")[708]
Striped camlett
Striped curtaines (alt. striped curtains; stript curtianes)
Striped hangings
Striped stuff ("201 hogsheads of traine oile, 96 packs of whalebone, 1185 peeces of box-wood, sixtie seaven or sixtie eight baggs of wooll, and foure rolls of slight striped stuffe, all which were laden at Bayon in ffrance")[709]
Stript carpets
Stript carpett
Stript cupbord cloth
Stript curtaines
Stript hangings
Stript stuffe (alt. stript stuff)
Stryped window curtaine
Stript window curtaines
Stryped hangings
Stuff
Stuff curtains
Stuffe
Stuffs (alt. stuffes) ("the said Mr ffernandez bought or caused to be bought a considerable quantity of goods in this city, namely stuffs of severall sorts, and silke stockings, and other goods")[710]
Sufa silke (alt. suffe silke) ("amongest the rest one bill of lading for one baile of legee silke and one faugot of Sufa silke to be carried to Ligorne")[711]
Suffolk cloathes ("the arlate Mr Travers of London merchant had then three bales containing 15 or 16 Suffolke cloathes")[712]
Sumack
Sumacke
Surratt callicoes
Suites of clothes
Sute of cloth curtins
Sydeboard cloth
Synament colour


T


Tabby
Tabee cloak lyned with plush
Table cloth
Table clothes of damask worke
Table linnen
Taffata's of Granada ("ffrancis fforno alias van Obstal and Lewes Reynault (alias Rutharson) had at Cadiz laden for account and adventure of there the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier
and John Reynault, on board a shipp called the ffortune (ffernando Gerardo Loro a spaniard commander) of the burthen of a hundred and tenn tonnes (or there abouts) with three peeces of ordnance and eighteene men, severall bales of Roane linnens, thredd and silk laces of Paris, bombazin, taffata's of Grenada, box combes and diverse other merchandizes, amounting all together with the charges of the said shipp (which belongs to the said John James fforno) to the summe of fowrscore thousand livers Tournois, to be carried and transported in the said shipp to Cartagena in the King of Spaines dominion in the West Indies. there to be vended and invested in silver and other Indian commodities for the same account and adventure of the said John James fforno, Michael Charpentier, and John Reynault")[713]
Taffatie hoods ("divers goods were found about them the sayd Viber and his mate, as gloves, taffatie hoods, hatbands and other things, and some of the sayd shipps company that came back from the persuite brought alsoe some taffaty hoods and other things which they found floating on the water")[ADD REFERENCE]
Taffaty (alt. taffitye) ("a box of lace, gloves and taffaty")[714]
Taffaty hoods ("divers goods were found about them the sayd Viber and his mate, as gloves, taffatie hoods, hatbands and other things, and some of the sayd shipps company that came back from the persuite brought alsoe some taffaty hoods and other things which they found floating on the water")[ADD REFERENCE]
Taffeta ribbon ("All sorts of taffeta ribbon in a paper worth 9 li 3 s ten dozen of black silke poynts worth 1 li 8 s")[715]
Taffetes (alt. taffetas) ("one great chest No C with sixteene pieces of coloured taffetes")[716]
Taffetty
Tannd calveskinns ("fourty dozen of tannd calveskinns")[717]
Tanned hydes
Tanned leather ("[WOODBRIDGE TO LONDON] Mary Ann of Woodbridge Johhn Elington master...61 hydes of tanned leather", 1658)[718]
Tanner
Tanning ("Item I give and bequeath to my youngest sonn William Cock eight hundred pounds which said eight hundred pounds I would have continued and used in my tanning trade so long as my executrix and the overseers of my said will shall finde it profitable, in case it shall please God to continue peace amongst us And Frances Hale my tanner shall live...Item I give and bequeath to my brother Philip Wheeler to provide some way of livelyhood for himself twenty pounds And if my deare Wife his sister shall aprehend and hope or believe that he will become Sober and carefull and she shall think fitt to continue my tanning works she may send him to Limerick in Ireland and there employ him only to take care there be noe embezelment to oversee the workmen and labourers that they loyter not, to see all hydes bought and leather shipt out expertly weighed and to be a cheque over Davis and the whole work")[719]; COMMENTARY: Conservator Angela Middleton explains that "Leather refers to mammal skin/ hide that has been altered by tanning (mainly vegetable (oak bark) tanning). This results in water resistent brown leather. Tawing uses alumn and can be used on any skin/hide to produce white-ish but non-water resistant leather. The terms skin or hide refer to the size of the animal. Skin = smaller. Hide = larger animal. Tanning and tawing are two totally different processes applied to the same raw material."
Tanton serges (i.e. Taunton) ("one pack with twenty and foure peeces of Tanton serges")[720]
Tape ("Haberdashery wars, as hatts, tape needles pins ... and such like")[721]
Tapsells ("three bales of broad tapsells")[722]
Tapestry ("a peice of Tapestry")[723]
Tapestry carpets
Tapestry coverlet
Tapestry hanging
Tappaselle[724]
Tapstree cushions
Tapstry-worke
Tapestry greene worke ("1 sute of tapestry greene worke", 1673)[725]
Tawing COMMENTARY: Conservator Angela Middleton explains that "Leather refers to mammal skin/ hide that has been altered by tanning (mainly vegetable (oak bark) tanning). This results in water resistent brown leather. Tawing uses alumn and can be used on any skin/hide to produce white-ish but non-water resistant leather. The terms skin or hide refer to the size of the animal. Skin = smaller. Hide = larger animal. Tanning and tawing are two totally different processes applied to the same raw material."
Tawney[726]
Terronella
Tester ("tester of scarlet belonging to the same imbrodered with some silver and some copper upon blacke velvett with frendge of redd silke and silver...one other tester with valence of church stuffe")[727]; "tester of sattin")[728]; POTENTIAL SOURCE: Santina M. Levey, An Elizabethan Inheritance: The Hardwick Hall Textiles (National Trust, 2010)
Testers
Teastor
Teastor headpeece
Teastor of paragon
Testor
Thimbles ("there was laden and put on board the said ship in the River of Thames a cargoe of goods consisting in linnen and woollen cloath, East India stuff, searges, beads, glasses, muskets, pistolls, strongwaters, brandewines, white wine and clarret, silke stockings, suits and cloakes shoes, knives, sizers combs pins, needles, thimbles, thred ffish hooks, bells, locks, lead and severall other comodityes.")[729]
Thread (alt. thred) ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes"[730]; [ROCHESTER TO LONDON] ''Remembrance of Maidstone Robert Cox master...4 baggs of thread", 1658)[731]
Thread blankett
Thredd laces (alt. thred laces)
Thrumb (alt. thrums, thrumms) ("the Howse of ffreindship did want and stand in need of severall materialls and things to fit and amenable her to proceed to sea, namely of tarr deales bankes sparrs quarters battens, traine oyle, spunyarne, ratlyn, thrumb, marlin houselin rosinn billetts, and suchlike comodityes")[732] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Thrums are short lengths of thread or yarn, specifically the unwoven ends of warp yarns that remain when fabric is cut from the loom, or in general any soft lock of wool. Thrums were used in knotted-pile weaving (E. Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, p. 41[733]); to thrum canvas sails to "make a rough surface or a mat which can be wrapped about rigging to prevent chafing" (Tortora & Merkel (1996), Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 7th ed., entry 'thrum', p. 577[734]); and to make the shaggy thrummed caps worn by sailors from the C16th to C18th. SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England[735]; (2) Phyllis G. Tortora, Robert S. Merkel. (1996), Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 7th ed., entry 'thrum', p. 577)[736]; (2) Oxford English Dictionary, entries 'thrum' (senses 1, 2, & 3), 'thrum mat', 'thrum cap'.
Ticking
Tiffanyes ("a small baile of silke or tiffanyes, which her the said Stanton sayd was worth two hundred pounds.")[737]
Tippet of velvet
Tortle shells
Tortoise shells (alt. tortois shells) ("the said chest of tortoise shells")[738]
Tortoyse shells ("one chest of tortoyse shells marked [MARK IN THE LH MARGIN] the second marke in the margent, which were soe laden on board the said ship the Morning Starr upon and for the sole and propper account of the said Alfonso Gomez Dias, merchant of Amsterdam")[739]
Towell hanger
Towells of damaske
Travellers bed of redd cloath ("one travellers bedd of redd cloath worth 1 li 6 s", 1653)[740]
Tregar cloath ("besides the sayd tenn bales, fower nests of truncks, fower full conteyning flaxe and twenty peeces of narrow lockerams and halfe a peece of Tregar or course cloath, and sixe peeces of broad lockerams"[741] COMMENTARY: Freyalyn Close-Hainsworth states that 'Merchants and Merchandise in 17C Bristol: Vol 19' defines it as 'Tregar (treager) a linen fabric from Treguier in Brittany', but nothing is known about its uses.
Trimmed gloves[742]
Trimming ribbons for women
Trusse of darnix
Trusse of linnen cloth
Trusses of bayes
Trusses of broadcloth
Trusses of lynnen cloath
Tufted hollands ("the lading of the sayd shipp is sope tufted hollands druggs and onion seades, which were laden in the sayd shipp for accompt of George Ball of Lithgow and one Mr Ball of Glasgow, and one other of Lithgow whose name he remembreth not and him this deponent, to be transported to Leith of Scotland")[743]; COMMENTARY: Textile historian Viveka Hansen notes that in the book ‘The Dictionary of Fashion History’ by Valerie Cumming et al (2010) | Quote: ‘Tufted canvas Period: 17th century. “Stript or tufted canvas with thread”, the “striping” or “tufting” done with linen thread or with silk’.
Tuking ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Hope of Leith James Lockart master...five hundred ells of tuking and pladding", 1657)[744]
Tumerick
Tunne of yarne
Turkey and Smirna Persian carpetts
Turkey carpet (alt. Turkey carpett, Turkey carpitt, Turkie carpett) ("In the little parlour ... 1 little turkey carpet ... In the counting howse ... 1 Turkey carpitt", 1679)[745] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: In C17th, 'Turkey carpet' might mean either a carpet imported from the Near East or any carpet of this general design, whether imported or made domestically. The Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus describes 'Turkey carpets' as "Strictly speaking, floor or table carpets, rugs, and kilims of Turkish design; however, in historical sources the term may be used imprecisely to refer to any rugs having Oriental designs, not necessarily only those of Turkish manufacture or design."[746] SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Turkey carpets', Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.[747]
Turkey chaires ("six turkey chaires")[748] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Probably the same as Turkey work chaires. See Turkey work.
Turkey pallet quilts of silke

Turkey work side chair, English textile and American frame, 1660-1690, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Item description at The Met Photo licensed CC0 1.0 Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
Turkey work (alt. Turkey worke, Turky work, Turky worke, Turkieworke) ("Item xij cushions of Turkey work and iij of needlework and vj old cushion-cases of tapestry", 1583/84)[749] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: Turkey work, turkeywork, or turkey-work is a colourful knotted-pile furnishing textile produced in England from the late C16th to the mid-C18th, but most popular in the C17th. Turkey work was used for table and cupboard carpets, cushions, and especially for sets of chair seats and backs. Designs originally imitated imported Turkey carpets, but later reflected the geometric floral patterns fashionable for other types of C17th needlework. Kerridge (1985) lists "'Turkey work' pile carpets" being made "in Windsor in 1553, in Norwich in 1583, in York in 1595, and in Bradford in 1639" (E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England, page 41.[750]) Turkey work was hand-knotted using the Turkish or Ghiordes knot (also called the symmetrical knot) in worsted wool on a linen or hemp ground. The tufts of worsted were shorn to produced a dense, even pile. SECONDARY SOURCES: 'Turkeywork', Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus[751]; Eric Kerridge (1985). Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England [752]; Florence M. Montgomery (2007). 'Turkey work' in Textiles in America, 1650-1870, page 368[753]; Jane C. Nylander (1990), 'Turkeywork' in Fabrics for Historic Buildings, page 286.[754]

Turkey worke chaires ("ITEM I further give unto my said deare wife ... my turkey work chairs in the parlour", 1686)[755]
Turkey worke chayres ("In y:e Closett in y:e Parlor ... ?2 Turkey worke Chayres & Cushoons", 1671)[756]; ("In the little parlour ... 14 Turkey work chaires", 1679)[757]
Turkey worke carpett ("Y:e Parlor ... i. Turkey worke carpett", 1674)[758]
Turkie carpett ("two Turkie carpetts")[759] (See Turkey carpet)
Turkieworke backe stooles (INT HE GARDEN PARLOR ... IT. 4 turkieworke backe stooles", 1638)[760]
Turky work chaires ("Y:e Parlor ... 6. old Turky work chaires", 1674)[761]
Turky worke carpett ("In y:e roome upp two ptes of stayres over y:e Xarb:r [chamber?] ... i. Turky worke carpett", 1674)[762]
Tweell ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Margaret of Kircady Thomas White master...1500 ells of Tweell and Tykeing", 1658)[763]; COMMENTARY: Dave Henderson suggests that 'tweell' is likely to be 'twill', which is "woven so the warp and weft pass over more than one of their opposite in the weave".
Twellinge ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Guift of God of Leith David Coulson master...1 [?XXX] quantity 700 ells of twellinge", 1658)[764]; COMMENTARY: Colin Greenstreet Possibly a scottish usage, as a variant of towel(l) or towel(l)ing.[765]
Twine ("Norleigh the factor of the said ffrederick Chewne and companie, at the delivery of the goods in question at Porta fferrara perceiving severall baggs of goods to be torne and broken did himselfe provide and procure canvas twine and other necessaries for the reparation thereof", 1655)[766]
Tyckeing ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Henry of Barwicke Thomas Haye master...15 rowles of tyckeing 1250 ells", 1658)[767]
Tykeing[768]; ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Peeter of Preston panns John Carre master...4 rowles of tykeinge quantity 300 ells", 1658)[769]; COMMENTARY: Dave Henderson suggests that 'tykeing' is likely to be 'ticking', which is "hard cloth for mattress covers".
Tykeing towell ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Margate of [?Keruale] Thomas White master...900 ells of tykeing towell and linnen cloath more")[770]


U


Underdrawers ("4. payre of underdrawers")[771]
Undrest flax ("[FFEVERSHAM TO LONDON] James of ffeversham John Munger master...5 packs of undrest flax", 1658)[772]
Untawed lambe skinns ("[BERWICK UPON TWEED TO LONDON] Robert and Benjamin of Newcastle Michill Mordy master...308 untawed lambe skinns", 1657)[773]
Upholsterer ("Edward Potts of Upper Shadwell in the parish of Stepney county of Middlesex upholsterer aged 33 yeeres", 1658)[774]


V


Valance (Alt. Valence, Vallance, Vallence, Vallens, Vallents, Vallons) ("my ffeather Bedd and boulster two long pillowes two little pillowes two blanketts and Rugg Curtaines Valance and headcloth", 1690)[775] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: A valance is a band of drapery or textile hung at the top of a bed or window to conceal the curtain rods and hanging hardware. C17th bed valances were generally "made straight and ornamented with fringe, sometimes elaborately netted" (Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870, p. 22[776]). SECONDARY SOURCE: Florence M. Montgomery (2007). Textiles in America, 1650-1870.[777]
Valence of church stuffe ("Item one other tester with valence of Church stutfe and three curtens of sarcenet redd and murrey", 1583/84)[778] COMMENTARY: Paula Marmor: In the 1580s, 'church stuff' implies the repurposing of rich vestments. which were often cut up and used for domestic decoration. Such textiles came on the market after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 1530s and again after the ban on vestments of 1552 (Santina M. Levey (2007). The Embroideries at Hardwick Hall, p. 19[779]). SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) Oxford English Dictionary, entry 'church stuff"; (2) Santina M. Levey (2007). The Embroideries at Hardwick Hall, The National Trust[780]).
Vall lined with silke ("In y:e chamber on my Ladies Chamber ... 2 Blanketts a silke Quilte ?Cloth Curtaines & vall lined w:th silke", 1671)[781]
Vallance {"In the Chamber Over the Dyning Roome ... Item one bedstead Matt One Cord with Curtaine Rodds Curtaines double
Vallance Testor Coverlidd", 1671)[782]
Vallence of blew ("ITM in the Hall chamber, y:e bedsted curtins and vallence blew", 1669)[783]
Vallence of purpetuane
Vallence of sarsett ("?Vallence of Sarsett", 1681)[784]
Vallence of silke India damaske
Vallens ("The Mens garrett ... ITEM 1 bedsted, Curtins & Vallens, feather bed, bolsters, 2 blanketts
& Quilt ...", 1671)[785]
Vallens of blew ("In the upper Chamber backwards ... ITEM One Bedstead Matt Cord and Curtain Rods, tester, and head Peice, Curtaines and Vallens of blew, and Window Curtains of The same", 1671)[786]
Vallens of watered mohaire lyned with greene sarsenett ("one other bed curtaines and vallens of watered Mohaire lyned with greene sarsenett with featherbed bolster pillow quilt and blanketts thereunto", 1666)[787]
Vallens of stript stuff
Vallens of taffetie ("IT. a Canopie & 2 curtens and vallens of taffetie old", 1638)[788]
Vallens of tent stitch ("5 curtens for the bed & 4 for the windowes of taffeta old & a paire of vallens of tent stitch", 1638)[789]
Vallens of green say ("IN THE CHAMBER NEXT THE ?BRUSHINGE ROOME ... ITEM a french bedstedd matt & cord 5 curtens & vallens of greene say & curtenrods", 1638)[790]
Vallents ("In the Garrett neyt to that ITEM One bedstead and Curtaines vallents teaster and headcloth", 1694)[791]
Vallons ("In y:e Chamber over y:e Kitchen ITEM one bedsted w:th a saile cloath bottom w:th greene curtaines & vallons & tester", 1674)[792]
Vander hangings ("In the matted chamber...eight peeces of Vander hangings")[793]
Velvet (alt. velvett)
Velvet chaires
Velvet coate
Velvet cusheons (alt. velvet cushions)
Velvet lining of a cloake
Velvet scarfe
Velvet sute
Velvett
Verdure ("In the dyninge roome...the old verdures around the roome", 1638)[794]
Vermilion (alt. vermillion) ("13 yards of vermilion att 10 d per yard")[795]
Very fine Holland sheets ("two paire of very fyne Holland sheets two paire of courser sort")[796]
Vest ("we are so angry with the ffrench that we have forsaken theire ffashions and entertain’d the popish habit which we call a vest") [IN A FOOTNOTE TO A LETTER FROM JAMES OXINDEN TO HIS UNCLE SIR GEORGE OXENDEN, PRESIDENT OF THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY IN SURAT, DATED JANUARY 1666/67][797]
Violet cloak lyned with squirrell
Violet color
Violet gowne
Vittry canvas (alt. Vandalose canvas) ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Providence of Dover Robert Le Gent master Vincent De La Barr and companie 4 bales quantity 1200 ells of Vittry canvas duty paid")[798]; COMMENTARY: Historical linguist Marcin Krygier notes the Merriam-Webster definition of 'Vitry' as a "light durable canvas"[799]. As to the etymology, he cites the Oxford English Dictionary: " French Vitré, the name of a town in Brittany. The early forms in -is, -isch probably represent French Vitrées plural, canvas cloths made at Vitré."


W


Wadmell ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Lyon of Yarmouth Clement Rotter master...100 yards of Wadmell")[800]'; COMMENTARY: Viveka Hansen notes that "‘Vadmal’ (various spellings) in Sweden etc was used for clothing & interior textiles. A coarse woollen cloth in tabby or twill, fulled to be warm/felted, often home woven.See also ‘Svenska Akademiens Ordbok’ the word ‘vadmal’ in Swedish (references/C17th)".[801]. Hansen adds that "vadmal/wadmal has a very long history over an extended area. | First mentioned in Sweden year 1292 as a receipt for ‘vadmal’ in a diplomatarium as ‘centum decem marchas wadmalie’ (Kjellberg, Sven T., Ull och Ylle, 1943, p 35)"; Nicola Clarke notes that Spufford and Mee in The Clothing of the Common Sort list wadmol, wadmal as coarse woollen cloth". SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) Sven T. Kjellberg (1943), Ull och ylle: Bidrag till den svenska yllemanufakturens historia.[802] (2) Margaret Spufford and Susan Mee (2018). The Clothing of the Common Sort, 1570-1700.[803]
Wadmell mettens ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Lyon of Yarmouth Clement Rotter master...10 dozen paire of Wadmell mettens")[804]
Wadmell mittens ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Pellican of Yarmouth Jonas Neane master...16 dozen of Wadmell mittens"[805]
Wadmell stockins ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Unity of Yarmouth John Stacy master...28 dozen of Wadmell stockins and 20 dozen of mittens dutyes payd")[806]
Wadmell stockings ("[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Nellcorne of Yarmouth John Denmarke master...10 dozen paire of Woodmell stockings dutyes paid"[807]
Wainscot presse for clothes[808]
Wast belts ("26. long belts and 12. wast belts", 1653[809]
Wastcoat (alt. Wastecoat) ("[Will of Sir John Gayer, Alderman of London 07 September 1649] ... to be made into outward garments for the poore people of the said towne of Plymouth (viz) for every man and boy a paire of breeches and a doublett, for every woman and girle a petticoat and Wastcoat, and for every child an outward Coate")[810]
Wastecoate (alt. Wastcoat) ("12. bands, 1 wastecoate, 2. paire of welted stockins ...")[811]
Watershell[812]
Watered mohaire lyned with green sarsenett[813]
Watered tabbies
Wattered tabby[814]
Wearing apparrell ("j trunck j box ij portmantles quarter wearing apparell")[815]
Wearing cloths
Weareing linnen
Weeld ("[SANDWICH TO LONDON] Remembrance of Maidstone Robert Cox master...2 loads of weeld", 1658[816]; [ROCHESTER TO LONDON] Goodspeed of [?Mamling] Thomas Worlidge master...1 load of weeld", 1658[817]; [ROCHESTER TO LONDON] Remembrance of Maidstonr Robert Cox master...2 loads of weeld", 1658)[818]
Weild ("[ROCHESTER TO LONDON] Blessing of Newhyde Thomas Ward master...3 load of weild")[819]
Weld ("[DOVER TO LONDON] Providenceof Dover Robert Ledgant master...2 loads of weld")[820]
Welted stockins[821]
West India hydes ("two thousand West India hydes")[822]
Whalebone ("201 hogsheads of traine oile, 96 packs of whalebone, 1185 peeces of box-wood, sixtie seaven or sixtie eight baggs of wooll, and foure rolls of slight striped stuffe, all which were laden at Bayon in ffrance")[823]
White and blew printed statin ("a quantity of white and blew printed statin in two pieces")[824]
White bone lace
White callicoe
White callico curtains
White Calma silke
White curtaines
White dimitys
White Gentish cloath ("in or about the moneth of August anno domini 1635 in the porte of Dunkirke (as he was advised by letters from his factor John Martell of Dunkirke merchant) there were laden abord the shipp the Seaflower of London (wherof Robert Addams was master) two trusses of lynnen cloath marked and numbred as in the margent, each trusse contayninge fower score halfe peeces of white Gentish cloath with a wrapp of browne cloath about it which goods cost cleare abord the sayd shipp at Dunkirke six hundred fifty three pounds ten shillings fflemish or therabouts within an angell more or lesse [?XXX] accomptinge the Exchange at 33 s 3 d fflemish per pound sterling amounted unto three hundred nynetye one pounds eighteene shillings sterling or therabouts", 1637)[825]
White hatt ("I give and bequeath unto my approved good freind Mr Phillip Gyffard my belt and white hatt left in his possession likewise my gold seale ring")[826]
White Holland curtains
White kantins
White kersies ("one peece of white kersies a great parte whereof being almost halfe moatheaten he was forced to cutt off for the preservation of the rest", 1654)[827]
White lace
White linnen ("three peeces of browne linnen and one peece of linnen...laded as aforesaid at Hamborow, and consigned to this port of London")[828]
White Normandye canvas ("[RYE TO LONDON] Providence of Rye William Key master...3 [?parcels] of browne and white Normandye canvas quantity 100 ells dutyes paid")[829]
White sarcenet mantle
White serge window curtains
White serges ("the usuall rate of mixed serges of twelve pounds weight per peice is about three pounds ten shillings the first penny, and white serges are usually sold the first penny att betwixt four pounds and five pounds per peice. And much after that rate serges of that nature were sold for att Colchester the first penny about the latter end of the yeare 1653"[830]
Willow colour
Window curtaines of callicoe
Window curtens
Window cushions
Windowcloth
Woad COMMENTARY: Woad ('Isatis tinctoria') is an indigo dye-bearing plant of Assyria and the Levant, grown extensively in the past in Northern Europe.[831] SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) 'Isatis tinctoria' (also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum), Wikipedia entry[832] (2) 'Glossary of dyeing terms', Wikipedia entry, online webresource[833]
Woade
Wood coller[834]
Woolen cloth
Wooll (= wools) ("John Dobson master of the shipp the William of Dartmouth upon the ladings of the seaven and twentie baggs of wool mentionned in the premisse of this cause on board the said shipp the William of Dartmouth then lyeing in the porte or roade of Bilboa to be carryed in the said shipp from thence to London")[835]
Wooll-cards ("hee beleeveth that wooll-cards and trusses of goods are usually carried by masters of shipps in their vessells the voyage interrogated but upon what account hee knoweth not", 1658)[836]
Wooll fells ("[LEITH TO LONDON] Rachell of Leith Richard Everit master...1090 wooll ffells", 1658)[837]
Wooll of Andalusia ("7 baggs of wooll of Andalusia and 51 baggs of Segovia woolls")[838]
Woollen blanckets
Woollen-cloths
Woollen fflox ("[IPSWICH TO LONDON] ffortune of Ipswich Benjamin Myles master...5 baggs of woollen fflox")[839]; [IPSWICH TO LONDON] Dispatch of Ipswich Henry Norman master...4 baggs of woollen flox")[840]
Woollen knitt stockins for men ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] Allotted Providence of Newcastle John Partridge master...1 tts quantity 60 dozen paire of woollen knitt stockins for men", 1658)[841]

Woollen thrums ("[NEWCASTLE TO LONDON] ffellowshipp of Newcastle William Brunter master...5 hundred weight of woollen thrums", 1658)[842] See Thrumbs.
Woollen yarne (alt. wool yarn) ([LEIGH TO LONDON] "James Quilter ind ij parcells quantity ij hundred weight of worsted and woollen yarne", 1657)[843]
Worsted stockings ("for the particular adventure of the said Mr Goodier thirtie five peaces of stuffs and seaventie five paire of worsted stockings", 1656)[844]
Worsted stuff ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] Elizabeth of Burnt island John Neems master...13. ells of worsted stuff"[845]; "[YARMOUTH TO LONDON] Speedwell of Yarmouth Robert Atwood master...5 [?tts] of worsted stuffs", 1658)[846]
Woosted stockings (alt. worsted stockings) ("which lading hee saith consisted in woollen and lynnen cloth, serges. stuffs Needles thread riben pinns. knives sizers silke, and woosted stockings. combs, bells, morters and pestles, earthen ware glasses, beads, cabinetts hatts. shooes. old cloathes and other comodityes")[847]
Woorsted stockings
Would [SEE ALSO "ENGLISH WOAD", WHICH MAY BE DIFFERENT COMMODITY] ("John of ffeversham Thomas Rabbidge Master...2 loads of would for dyers...")[848]; COMMENTARY: Dr Samantha Thompson notes an entry in a botanical work by George Don (1831) for the herb "Reseda Luteola". Don identifies multiple common place names for the herb, including "Dyer's-weed, yellow-weed, weld, woud, woold and wild woad", and also "Dyers'-woold". He states "Dyers formerly made considerable use of this plant; for it affords a most beautiful yellow dye for cotton, woollen, silk, and linen. Blue cloths are dipped in a decoction of it in order to become green...The entire plant when it is about flowering is pulled up for the use of the dyers, who employ it both fresh and dried." Don distinguishes "Reseda Luteola" , or "Dyer's-Woold", from Woad or Indigo.[849]; Woad ('Isatis tinctoria') is an indigo dye-bearing plant of Assyria and the Levant, grown extensively in the past in Northern Europe.[850] SECONDARY SOURCES: (1) 'Reseda Luteola', in George Don, A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants, (London, 1831), pp. 287-288[851] (2) 'Weld (Reseda luteola), in Wild Colours - Weld Dye Plants, online web resource[852] (3) 'Isatis tinctoria' (also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum), Wikipedia entry[853] (4) 'Glossary of dyeing terms', Wikipedia entry, online webresource[854]
Worsted yarne ("James Quilter ind ij parcells quantity ij hundred weight of worsted and woollen yarne"[855]
Wrought couch[856]
Wrought curtaines ("In the matted chamber...foure wrought curtaines and vallours tester and head cloth")[857]
Wrought dymothy
Wrought funiture


Y


Yarne ("[BURNT ISLAND TO LONDON] ffortune of Kircaldy Mathew Anderson master...80 spindles of yarne", 1658)[858]
Yellow Avinion silk quilt
Yellow bayes or serge
Yellow cloath
Yellow cover
Yellow damask bed
Yellow dying stuff ("three small barrells of yellow dying stuff")[859]
Red and yellow earth
Yellow perpetuana
Yellow rugg
Yellow silke
Yellow silke quilt
Yorkshire cottons



Z

  1. HCA 13/71 f.574v
  2. George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Boston, 1935; reissued New York, 1977), p. 83, citing Suffolk County Probate Records, vol. II, p.127, accessed 30/01/2018
  3. E 190/46/2 f.62v
  4. HCA XX/XX f.XX
  5. E 190/46/2 f.46r
  6. HCA 13/71 f.361r
  7. Liste der hamburgischen Empfänger von Indigo- und Anil-Sendungen aus San Lucar in der Zeit um 1640
  8. [Indigofera suffruticosa, Wikipedia entry]
  9. E 190/46/2 f.51r
  10. PROB 5/2521 Inventory of Paul Docminique sen., 1680/81, ff. 1-8
  11. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  12. Eric Kerridge: Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719026324, 1985, p. 17
  13. Eric Kerridge: Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719026324, 1985, pp. 15, 17, 166
  14. E 190/46/2 f.31v
  15. HCA_13/70_f.287
  16. HCA_13/72_f.279r
  17. Eric Kerridge: Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719026324, 1985.
  18. HCA 13/68 f.459v
  19. Arnold, Janet, Jenny Tiramani, and Santina M. Levey (2008). Patterns of fashion 4: The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1540-1660. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9780333570821. Pages 36-42
  20. Valerie Cumming, C. W. Cunnington, P. E. Cunnington (2010) The Dictionary of Fashion History. London: Berg. ISBN 9781847885333. Page 13.
  21. Collar with attached bandstrings of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, 1632, Livrustkammaren (The Royal Armoury), Sweden, CC0 1.0 Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons.
  22. E 190/46/2 f.46r
  23. PROB 5/2521 Inventory of Paul Docminique sen., 1680/81, ff. 1-8
  24. HCA 13/73 f.199r
  25. HCA 13/70 f.341v
  26. HCA 13/73 f.509r
  27. HCA 13/73 f.594r
  28. E 190/46/2 f.90v
  29. HCA 15/6, no fol. no., bill of lading, Dec. 20th 1655
  30. HCA 13/64 f.19r
  31. PROB 4/7600 Kelyng, Rt. Hon. Sir John, 1671 16 Dec
  32. HCA 13/70 f.652v
  33. HCA 13/73 f.17v
  34. 'Hats: felts, demi-castors, castors and beavers', Sep. 15, 2015, in 'Costume Historian', an online blog, accessed 08/01/2018
  35. HCA 13/71 f.43v
  36. HCA 13/70 f.442v
  37. HCA 13/62 unfol. DSC_130D3300_0484
  38. HCA 13/62 unfol. DSC_130D3300_0484
  39. HCA 13/68 f.459v
  40. HCA 13/70 f.647v
  41. 4th April 1663, Letter from Margaret Oxinden to Sir GO, Addendum, Deane, Kent
  42. C10/488/141
  43. PROB 11/331 Coke 108-166 Will of Randolph Taylor, Merchant 11 October 1669
  44. HCA 13/62 unfol. DSC_130D3300_0485
  45. PROB 11/173 Goare 1-58 Will of George Seagars, Gentleman of Wrotham, Kent 07 February 1637
  46. HCA 13/68 f.459v
  47. Mary Evelyn, Mundus Muliebris or The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd, (London, 1690), reprinted by the Costume Society, 1977.
  48. The Four Seasons. Wenceslas Hollar, J.L. Nevinson and Ann Saunders, The Costume Society, London, 1979.
  49. Mary Evelyn, Mundus Muliebris or The Ladies Dressing-Room Unlock'd, (London, 1690), reprinted by the Costume Society, 1977.
  50. The Four Seasons. Wenceslas Hollar, J.L. Nevinson and Ann Saunders, The Costume Society, London, 1979.
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  53. HCA 13/70 f.290r
  54. HCA 13/68 f.464v
  55. Gordenker, Emilie E. S. (2002-02-27). Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers. ISBN 978-2-503-50880-1, 2002, p. 83
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  57. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  58. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  59. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  60. PROB5/4028 Inventory and probate accounts of Issac Alvarez, 1686, ff. 1-82
  61. PROB 11/398 Dyke 1-44 Will of Mary Hoddesdon, Widow of Upminster, Essex 11 January 1690
  62. PROB 4/6567 Inventory of Rachel, Dow. Count. of Bath, of St Giles in the Fds, Midd. 1681
  63. HCA 13/76 f.38v
  64. HCA 13/53 f.249r
  65. HCA 13/72 f.216v
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  67. PROB 5/2521 Inventory of Paul Docminique sen., 1680/81, ff. 1-8
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  578. E 190/46/2 f.49v
  579. HCA 13/72 f.449v
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  583. E 190/46/2 f.92r
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  631. HCA 13/73 f.528v
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  633. HCA 13/73 f.199r
  634. HCA 13/62 unfol. DSC_130D3300_0485
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  805. E 190/46/2 f.21r
  806. E 190/46/2 f.54v
  807. E 190/46/2 f.25v
  808. HCA 13/62 unfol. DSC_130D3300_0484
  809. HCA 13/68 f.459v
  810. PROB 11/209/220 Will of Sir John Gayer, Alderman of London 07 September 1649
  811. HCA 13/68 f.464v
  812. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  813. PROB 11/320/104 Will of Sir John Jacob of Bromley, Middlesex 02 April 1666
  814. PROB 11/320/104 Will of Sir John Jacob of Bromley, Middlesex 02 April 1666
  815. E 190/46/2 f.2r
  816. E 190/46/2 f.60r
  817. E 190/46/2 f.71v
  818. E 190/46/2 f.71v
  819. E 190/46/2 f.22r
  820. E 190/46/2 f.21v
  821. HCA 13/68 f.464v
  822. HCA 13/71 f.532r
  823. HCA 13/70 f.22v
  824. HCA 13/68 f.468r
  825. HCA 13/53 f.131v
  826. PROB 11/331 Coke 108-166 Will of Randolph Taylor, Merchant 11 October 1669
  827. HCA 3/46 f.2v
  828. HCA 13/72 f.609v
  829. E 190/46/2 f.32v
  830. HCA 13/71 f.160v
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  834. SP 46/84 ff. multiple
  835. HCA 24/112
  836. HCA 13/72 f.317r
  837. E 190/46/2 f.83r
  838. HCA 13/68 f.308r
  839. E 190/46/2 f.16r
  840. E 190/46/2 f.25v
  841. E 190/46/2 f.83v
  842. E 190/46/2 f.77v
  843. E190/46/2 f.11v
  844. HCA 13/71 f.241r
  845. E 190/46/2 f.46v
  846. E 190/46/2 f.94r
  847. HCA 13/73 f.509r
  848. E 190/46/2 f.13v Annotate
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  855. E190/46/2 ff.10r-19v
  856. PROB 5/1632 Inventory of Jonathan Ashe, 1666, ff. 1-16
  857. PROB 5/1632 Inventory of Jonathan Ashe, 1666, ff. 1-16
  858. E 190/46/2 f.67r
  859. HCA 13/70 f.646v