Tools: Company of Merchant Adventurers of London

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Background


Members of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London were involved in the export of English cloth, especially undyed, white, broadcloth. The MarineLives wiki contains references to a number of London merchants, and English merchants based in Hamburg, Amsterdam, Dordrecht and Rotterdam, who were members of, or connected with, the Company of Merchant Adventurers. The MarineLives project team wants to identify all these references and to pull them together on this wiki page. This will form a finding aid for all researchers interested in the C17th cloth trade, and more broadly in the trade for textiles. It will also serve as an input into the research work of Dr Tom Leng (Sheffield), who is currently writing a book on 'Disorderly Brethren: the Merchant Adventurers of England, c.1588-1688'.



Possible search terms to help identify Merchant Adventurers


Please help the MarineLives team identify members of the Company of Merchant Adventures of London in our 6 million word full text transcription wiki.

Search the wiki, do some sleuthing, and tweet us suggested names and wiki page references. We will add your findings to the wiki, with references and acknowledgement.

Many of the members of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London will not be identified as such, but can be presumed to be members through a combination of their export trade in cloth (and other goods), their location, their trading partners and secondary information you will need to look for on the web.

Here are some search terms for our wiki you might want to get started with

Adventurer
Cloth
Cloath
Cloth merchant
Cloth-merchant
Draper
Haberdasher
Mercer
Merchant + Hamburg
Merchant + Rotterdam

and lots lots more...






Identifying Merchant Adventurers

Merchant adventurers resident in London & surrounds


Definite

Sir Nicholas Crispe (b. ?; d. 1666) London merchant[1]
Arthur Tyndale (b. ?; d. ca. 1625) Mercer and Merchant Adventurer of London[2]
Nathaniell Tyndale (b. ?; d. ca. 1631). Mercer and Merchant Adventurer of London[3]
Samuell Tyndale (b. ?; d. ca. 1673). Merchant Adventurer of London[4]

Probable

Anthony Biddulph (b. ?; d. ca. 1651). Haberdasher of London.[5] J.R. Woodhead (1966) identifies the haberdasher Anthony Biddulph as a Merchant Adventurer.[6]
George Boldero [alt. Baldero] (b. ?; d. ca. 1666). London merchant[7]
Martin Bond (b.?; d. 1643). Haberdasher. Merchant Adventurer.[8]; [9]
Henry Crispe (b. ca. 1608; d. ca. 1654). Merchant and haberdasher. Dealing in cloth and other commodities, which he imported into and exported from Hamburg for twenty years. Given his involvement in cloth, and past long residence in Hamburg, it is possible that Henry Crispe was a member of the Company of the Merchant Adventurers of London, which had a staple in Hamburg. Resident in 1653 in the parish of Saint Antholin Budge Row, London. He had been resident in Hamburg as recently as 1649, and possibly up to the start of war with the Dutch in late 1652.[10] Basil Duke Henning (1983) state that Henry Crispe was married to Elizabeth Biddulph, daughter of Anthony Biddulph (b.?; d. ca. 1651), a London haberdasher.[11] J.R. Woodhead (1966) identifies the haberdasher Anthony Biddulph as a Merchant Adventurer.[12] Henry Crispe's first son was the eponymous Henry Crispe (b. ca. 1650, Hamburg; d. 1700), of Aldermanbury, London. The son was educated as a lawyer and became common serjeant iin 1678. He was elected to parliament in 1685.[13] Henry Crispe deposed in the High Court of Admiralty in October 1653. His knowledge was based on twenty years trading from Hamburg and thereabouts "in cloath and divers other sorts of commodities there most vendible and the like for the parts of Holland before the present troubles in such commodities as were there most advantagious". He suggested that Hamburg merchants tended to transport pepper and spices from Hamburg into the upper parts of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and some parts of Poland, where better prices could be achieved than at Hamburg.[14]
Richard Ford (alt. Sir Richard Ford) (b. ca. 1613, d. ca. 1678). Merchant. Resident in Rotterdam from 1642 and returned to London in 1652.[15] Younger son of Exeter merchant, Thomas Ford. Educated at Exeter College, Oxford and Gray's Inn. Member of Merchant Adventurers by 1644. Governor from 1660-1675. Active in 1650s as a naval supplier, working in partnership with his son-in-law, Peter Proby, who had married Grace Ford.[16] Proby was the grandson of the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Peter Proby. Ford was an associate in the 1650s of Nathaniel Temms, John Dethick, John Bancks and Martin Noell, all men rising rapidly. He was one of the new subscribers to the New General Stock of the English East India Company in 1657 and was appointed to the six person committee which was established to negotiate with a six person committee of existing subscribers. His associates on the committee are revealing – they were Maurice Thompson, Alderman Temms, Alderman Noel, Thomas Kendall, and Samuel Moyer. He was thus an ally of Thompson, as Thompson inserted himself at the apex of the EEIC hierachy. Ford was appointed an EEIC committee in [?XXXX], knighted by Charles II in [?XXXX], and appointed by Charles to the Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations formed in 1660 under Charles II, together with his associate Martin Noell, who was similarly knighted. On March 14th [CHECK] 1662/3 he wrote with moderate familiarity to Oxenden, requesting a small favour. Steven Pincus asserts that Sir Richard Ford was one of the most important London merchants in the Restoration period.[17]
Obadiah Ingram (b. ?; d. ca. 1635). Merchant Adventurer of London.[18]
Thomas Newman (b. ?; d. ca. 1650). Draper and Merchant Adventurer of London.[19]

Possible

Mathew Tindall (b. ?; d. ?ca. 1676). London draper & trader in cloth
- "Mathew Tindall of London, trader in cloth"[20]
Thomas Tite (b. ?; m. 1655, Elizabeth Lowther; d. ca. 1692).[21] Merchant, possibly a draper. Most probably involved in trade with Spain as well as in trade with the East Indies. Chosen a committee of the English East India Company for 1663-1664. Possibly a member of the Merchant Adventurers of London. A General Court of the Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers of England, held on April 9th, 1664, appointed Thomas Eslington, Robert Palmer, William Atwood, Edward Tedcome, John Morrice, Thomas Tite, Thomas Farrington and John Mascall, in total, or any three of them, with the Governor, Deputy or Treasurer, to hear demands from the commissioners of the Newcastle Merchant Adventurers.[22] Four years earlier, in October 1660, Thomas Tite was nominated, alongside "Dr. Mason, Dr. Walker, Dr. Turner, Sir Richard Foorde, Mr. Jeffery and Northleigh, to serve as commissioners "to treat with the Hamburg agent".[23] Thomas Tyte corresponded in the 1660s with Sir George Oxenden, with whom he was on friendly terms.[24] In his will he mentions a cousin, George Tyte "merchant now resideing in Bilboa in the Kingdome of Spaine." Brother-in-law of fellow London merchant George Willoughby through their respective marriages to two daughters of the London draper and alderman, Robert Lowther (b. 1595, d. 1654/55). According to a secondary genealogical source, Thomas Tyte married Elizabeth Lowther (b. ca. 1636, d. 1667) on September 24th, 1655 in Little Ilford, Essex, and George Willoughby married the widowed Dorothy Lowther (b. 1633, d. 1690 at Bishopstone, Wiltshire) on April 14th, 1662 in Great Greenford, Middlesex.[25]


Merchant adventurers resident elsewhere in England


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Merchant adventurers resident in the United Provinces

Amsterdam


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Dordrecht


Definite

Henry Boldero [alt. Baldero] (b. ?; d. ca. 1661). Merchant Adventurer of Dordrecht. Treasurer of the Company.[26]
- "the said Mr Henry Baldero is of his this deponents certaine knowledge a native of England, and was borne at Berry in the County of Suffolk, where this deponent was likewise borne and the said Henry Baldero doth here (by this deponent who is his correspondent) pay taxes to this Comonwealth of England for lands which hee hath here in England and is ffree of the Company of the Merchant Adventurers of London and hath bin tresurer of the said company"[27]

Probable

Samuel Augier (b. ?; d. ca. 1667). Merchant Adventurer of Dordrecht.[28]
John Boldero [alt. Baldero] (b. ?; d. ca. 1664). Merchant in Dordrecht[29]
James Fenn (b. ?; d. ca. 1652)[30]


Rotterdam


Probable

Theophilus Bainham (alt. Theophilus Bayneham) Merchant. Helmer J. Helmers (2015) identifies Theofilus Bainham as an English merchant, resident at Rotterdam in 1644. Bainham, together with John Webster, Edward Manning, Richard Ford, and James Yard, were all living in either Amsterdam or Rotterdam and were named by Walter Strickland in a letter to the English Parliament as "malignant Merchants" and subsequently declared by Parliament to be enemies to the Parliament and Kingdom of England.[31]
William Cotton (b. ?1633; d. ca. 1655). Merchant Adventurer of Rottedam.[32] William Cotton deposed in the English High Court of Amiralty in November 1653 in support of Hendry Baldero (alt. Boldero). He stated that he was born at Colchester in Essex, but was now living at Rotterdam in Holland as servant and merchant cashier to Baldero. He gave his age as twenty-two. He added that "for many and divers yeares last past there hath bene an English Company of Merchant Adventurers resident in the Citty of Roterdam, and that the arlate Henry Baldero hath bene for a yeare now past and upwards treasurer of the sayd Companie of English merchants and so is att this present, and the sayd Henry Baldero was and is an Englishman and well affected to this nation and the government thereof, and that he hath of the certaine knowledge and sight of this deponent releived many English seamen that have bene taken prisoners in the service of this Commonwealth in the present troubles and hath procured the libertyes of many of them and provided shipping to transport them for England."[33]
William Cranmer (b. ?; d. 1650). Merchant. Resident in Rotterdam.
James Fenn Merchant. Possiblly a mercer. Resident in Rotterdam, 1648-9.[34]
Richard Ford (alt. Sir Richard Ford) (b. ca. 1613, d. ca. 1678). Merchant. Resident in Rotterdam by 1644 and returned to London in 1652.[35] Younger son of Exeter merchant, Thomas Ford. Educated at Exeter College, Oxford and Gray's Inn. Member of Merchant Adventurers by 1644. Governor from 1660-1675. Active in 1650s as a naval supplier, working in partnership with his son-in-law, Peter Proby, who had married Grace Ford.[36] Proby was the grandson of the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Peter Proby. Ford was an associate in the 1650s of Nathaniel Temms, John Dethick, John Bancks and Martin Noell, all men rising rapidly. He was one of the new subscribers to the New General Stock of the English East India Company in 1657 and was appointed to the six person committee which was established to negotiate with a six person committee of existing subscribers. His associates on the committee are revealing – they were Maurice Thompson, Alderman Temms, Alderman Noel, Thomas Kendall, and Samuel Moyer. He was thus an ally of Thompson, as Thompson inserted himself at the apex of the EEIC hierachy. Ford was appointed an EEIC committee in [?XXXX], knighted by Charles II in [?XXXX], and appointed by Charles to the Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations formed in 1660 under Charles II, together with his associate Martin Noell, who was similarly knighted. On March 14th [CHECK] 1662/3 he wrote with moderate familiarity to Oxenden, requesting a small favour. Steven Pincus asserts that Sir Richard Ford was one of the most important London merchants in the Restoration period.[37]
Edward Kendrick

Possible

Thomas Clarke Merchant. Possibly a mercer. Resident in Rotterdam, 1645.[38]
Stephen Puckle (b. ca. 1595; d. >1652). Merchant of Estsmithfield, near London, and formerly Rotterdam. Deposed in the English High Court of Admiralty in November 1652. Puckle stated that "for the space of about twenty yeares next before the late warrs betwixt this Commonwealth and the United Provinces he did live, and reside with his family att Rotterdam in Holland, and by that meanes came to be well acquainted with the Dutch tongue".[39]
William Scapes (b. ca. 1606; d. ?). Merchant of Rotterdam. Deposed in English High Court of Admiralty in July 1651 regarding a ship in which he had ownership, which had gone to Norway to load deals, intended for sale in Newcastle for a return load of coal for Rotterdam.[40]


Location unclear


Just possible

William Harris.
- "the said Henry Baldero William Harris, and John Sheppard are all of them Englishmen borne, and subjects of this Comonwealth and live in Holland onely as merchant strangers. and not as subjects of the States of Holland. and saith that the said Henry Baldero is one of the Company of the Merchant Adventurers of England. which he knoweth for that hee hath bin imployed master of ships by the said Baldero Harris and Sheppard for theise three yeares last, And hath knowne them all [?theise] twelve yeeres last".[41]
John Sheppard
- "the said Henry Baldero William Harris, and John Sheppard are all of them Englishmen borne, and subjects of this Comonwealth and live in Holland onely as merchant strangers. and not as subjects of the States of Holland. and saith that the said Henry Baldero is one of the Company of the Merchant Adventurers of England. which he knoweth for that hee hath bin imployed master of ships by the said Baldero Harris and Sheppard for theise three yeares last, And hath knowne them all [?theise] twelve yeeres last".[42]



Merchant Adventurers resident in Hamburg


Probable

James Baber (b. ?; d. ca. 1686). Merchant of Hamburg[43] Possibly born in Somerset, ca. 1611. Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
John Bancks (alt. John Banckes) Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Robert Biddolphe (alt. Biddulph)
Isaack Blackwell Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Richard Bradshaw Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Nathaniell Cambridge (b. ?; d. ca. 1694). Merchant of Hamburg. ?Clothier of Woodchester, Gloucestershire.
- "[August 1. 1666] Haveing with others hired a waggon, about foure aclock, wee went from Lubeck; and, feeding the horses about midnight at halfe way, wee arrived at Hamborg about midday. I tooke up my lodging in the Stone street, at the signe of the Towne Revall, where I had choice company of cavaliers, only a little more ranting as was fitting for my humour. I sent immediately for Mr. Nathaniell Cambridge, to whom I had letters of recommendation; with whom, being come, I consulted about my jorney further. By sea was exceedingly dangerous and uncertaine, and by land tedious and expensive, neither without hazard. He promised to ask advice of other ffreinds, and gave me his and their opinions, proffering me withall the kindness in his power."[44][45]
- "St. Loe (or St. Chloe) school [in Minchampton, Glucestershire) was founded by Nathaniel Cambridge, described as a merchant of Hamburg, who left £1,000 which was used in 1698 to purchase the Seinckley manor estate"[46]
Clement Clarke[47]
Henry Crispe (b. ca. 1608; d. ca. 1654). Merchant and haberdasher. Dealing in cloth and other commodities, which he imported into and exported from Hamburg for twenty years. Given his involvement in cloth, and past long residence in Hamburg, it is possible that Henry Crispe was a member of the Company of the Merchant Adventurers of London, which had a staple in Hamburg. Resident in 1653 in the parish of Saint Antholin Budge Row, London. He had been resident in Hamburg as recently as 1649, and possibly up to the start of war with the Dutch in late 1652.[48] Basil Duke Henning (1983) state that Henry Crispe was married to Elizabeth Biddulph, daughter of Anthony Biddulph (b.?; d. ca. 1651), a London haberdasher.[49] J.R. Woodhead (1966) identifies the haberdasher Anthony Biddulph as a Merchant Adventurer.[50] Henry Crispe's first son was the eponymous Henry Crispe (b. ca. 1650, Hamburg; d. 1700), of Aldermanbury, London. The son was educated as a lawyer and became common serjeant iin 1678. He was elected to parliament in 1685.[51] Henry Crispe deposed in the High Court of Admiralty in October 1653. His knowledge was based on twenty years trading from Hamburg and thereabouts "in cloath and divers other sorts of commodities there most vendible and the like for the parts of Holland before the present troubles in such commodities as were there most advantagious". He suggested that Hamburg merchants tended to transport pepper and spices from Hamburg into the upper parts of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary and some parts of Poland, where better prices could be achieved than at Hamburg.[52]
William Gore Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656. Probate record for William Gore, merchant, bachelor of Hamburg, proven May 1685.[53]
David Hechstetter Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
John Northley Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Robert Palmer, senior (b. ?; d. ca. ?1691).[54] Merchant. Resident in Hamburg in 1645, April 1656 & May 1656.
John Parker
Samuel(l) Richardson Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Bethel Slingsby
William Strange Resident in Hamburg, April 1656 & May 1656.
Francis Townley Resident in Hamburg in May 1656.[55]
Richard Twyford Resident in Hamburg, April 1656, 1658 & 1661.[56]; [57]

Possible

Onesipherous Albyne Merchant. ?Resident in Hamburg in 1658.[58]
Charles BanksMerchant. Possibly brother of John Banck(e)s, Hamburg merchant. Resident in Hamburg in 1661.[59]
Edward Halford 'Merchant. ?Resident in Hamburg in 1658.[60]
Thomas Lawrence Merchant. Resident in Hamburg in 1650 and also in ?1658.[61]
Samuel Missenden Probably a merchant. Possibly a mercer. Resident in Hamburg in 1679. Son, also named Samuel Missenden, apprenticed in 1679 to William Gore, Merchant Adventurer.[62] Probate record for Samuel Missenden, Deputy Governor of the Right Worshipfull Fellowship of Merchant Adventurers of England of Hamburg, proven Jan 1690.[63]
Tobias Payne (b. pre-1640; d.?). Merchant. Born Townhope in Hereford. Cashier with Alderman Adams in London, 1650-1653. Apprentice to Richard Twyford, Hamburg merchant, in Hamburg (1654-1662). Independent merchant in Hamburg (1663-1664). Time in Barbados and Jamaica, then to Boston, New Rngland in 1666, where he married Sarah Standish, widow of Captain Miles Standish and daughter of John Winslow, merchant of Boston.[64]



1641 petitioners



Paul Bayley


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Martin Bently


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Thomas Bird


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David Bonnell


HCA references

David Young against David Bonell, 1658...Deposition of William Hobcroft, wine cooper, of Saint Dunstans in the East, aged 41...hee saith hee this deponent being imployed by the sayd David Bonnell to receave the sayd oyles after they were brought to London[65]

A 'David Bonnell, merchant, Fenchurch Street, London, is listed in 1642.[66]

Other primary sources

PROB 11/144/331 Will of Daniel Bonnell, of the French Church of Norfolk, Norwich 26 October 1624

PROB 11/177/363 Will of David Bonnel or Bonnell, Merchant of London 20 June 1638

C 8/61/29 Short title: Norton v Bonnell. Plaintiffs: Richard Norton. Defendants: David Bonnell and Paul Bonnell. Subject: money. Document type: answer only. 1645

"July 30. 1652. Council of State. Day's Proceedings...2. License to be given to David Bonnell, merchant of London, to import from Holland, by way of Flanders, certain goods manufactured there, bought by him, he giving in a list to the clerk of the Council."[67]

C 10/109/63 Hewett v. Watts, Bushell, Noell, Bonnell, Rastall, Bicknell: Middx 1663

Saint Dunstan in the East. West side...Daved Boonale 15 hearths.[68] [See also David Bonnell of Isleworth, Middlesex, will proven 1690]

"Islworth Parish...David Bonnell 6 hearths"

PROB 11/401 Dyke 134-172 Will of David Bonnell of Isleworth, Middlesex 13 October 1690



Lawrence Brinley


Lawrence Brinley. (b. ?; d. ca. 1662). Haberdasher and merchant.

Robert Brenner (1992) includes Lawrence Brinley in a list of the immediate members of Maurice Thomson's circle.[69] Brenner also describes Brinley as a colonial trader, mentioning him alongside John Jurin.[70]

Dai Liu (1986) identifies the leading parishioners in the parish of Saint Mary Magdalen Milk Street during the English Civil War as "Richard Aldworth, Robert Story, Francis Waterhouse, Anthony Webster, George Cornish, and Lawrence Brinley", adding that Brinley was appointed an assessor in 1642 and a lay trier in 1645, and that Brinley was elected a ruling elder on 19 July 1646 "to join with the ministers in settling the presbyteriall government".[71]

Brother was Thomas Brinley (b. ?; d. 1662). Nephew (son of Thomas Brinley) was Francis Brinley, who moved to Barbados then New England. Two of his sons were executors (Samuel and Richard Brinley0/ Witnesses to the will, written August 1662 and proved December 1662, were William Webb, Richard Brinley and John Jackson.[72]

Other primary sources

HL/PO/JO/10/1/168 Main Papers: 25 April 1644 -- List of Committee appointed to examine witnesses concerning the speeches against the Lord General.[73]
3 Examination of Lawrence Brinley, of London, merchant.
4 Another examination of Lawrence Brinley, Mr Francis Allen, and others.

C 10/3/118 William Penoyer v Laurence Brinley and [...] Bull: money matters, Middx 1649
C 9/6/131 Lawrence v. Penoyer 1651

PROB 11/306/465 Will of Thomas Brinley of Datchet, Buckinghamshire 11 December 1661

PROB 11/309/519 Will of Laurence Brinley, Haberdasher of London 03 December 1662

"[Hearth Tax: City of London 1666, St Mary Magdalen Milk Street] 'In Ann aly...Richard Brinley 9 hearths"[74]



Thomas Butler


A common name, so hard to disambiguate records and to definitely identify the correct individual. A 'Thomas Butler, merchant tailor, Saint Nicholas Lane, London' is listed in 1642. "Thomas Butler of Saint Nicholas lane Merchauntayler, listed one bay horse with a blaze and two white feete, his Ryder Armed Compleate valued att 24. 00. 00[75]

Other primary sources

PROB 11/221/376 Will of Thomas Butler, Merchant of London 13 April 1652

PROB 11/317/506 Will of Thomas Butler, Dyer of Whitecross Street, Middlesex 14 September 1665



Thomas Canham


T.S. Willan (1976) notes that Thomas Canham & Co. was one of the few London wine suppliers supplying both French and Spanish wines, the other being Arnold Beake & Co.[76]

Warden of the worshipfull company of Barber Surgeons, 1665, and master of the same company, 1668.[77]

"Dec. 20 [1666] John Canham, of London, Merchant, Bachelor, abt 26, & Mrs Mary Canham, of Mortlack, Surrey, Spinster, abt 19 ; consent of father Thomas Canham, of same, Gent. ; at Mortlack afs" or [blank']."[78]

Elected one of the twenty-four committees of the English East India Company in April 1671. Others included Sir William Thomson and Maurice Thomson.[79]

HCA references

Charterparty (Dated November 7th 1654; First party were John Paige and Richard Ely of Plymouth merchants partowners of the Golden Cocke of Plymouth, or the burthen of eighty five tonnes; Richard Chappell Master; ship lying in the River of Thames; Other party to the charterparty were Thomas Canham, John Paige and Maurice Thompson of London Merchants; to go to such places within and without the Straeights from the Port of London, starting at Gravesend; mentions the house of Thomas Canham , scituate in Lombardstreete London; signed Thomas Canham, Maurice Thomson (sic) John Paige (their original signatures, but seals removed)[80]

'The clayme of Thomas Cowell and Thomas Canham and companie for the shipp called the Thomas of Brest and her tackle and furniture', June 1656[81]

Deposition of London merchants William Bellamy, age 25, and Robert Cole, age 20, April 1657: "That in all about the beginning of the moneth of March last past Thomas Canham and companie all merchants of this City of London and subjects of this Commonwealth, knowne to these deponents did buy and provide at or let London aforesaid the number of One hundred and fifty firkins of English butter...about the middle of March last past caused the same to be laden and putt on board of the said shipp the Saint John, whereof the said John Van Arber was master then lyeing at or neere Saint Catherines in the River of Thames, neare this City, to be from thence transported to Bourdeaux in ffrance, for and upon the proper accompt and advantage of the said Thomas Canham and companie, who were are and ought to be the true lawfull and sole owners and proprietors...consigned to Jaspar Bolt their ffactor and correspondent at Bourdeaux aforesaid with order to sell or dispose of the same to their best benefitt and advantage...he said Robert Cole saith, That at the time of the said buying and lading hee this deponent was, as at present hee is, Cashier to the said Thomas Canham, and thereby is well assured of the reality of the said transactions, having seene them entred into the said Canhams book of Accompts under the marke predeposed..."[82]

Other primary sources

C 8/52/38 Short title: Busfield v Frederick. Plaintiffs: John Busfield. Defendants: John Fredericke and Christopher Fredericke, Peter Ent and Thomas Canham. Subject: money. Document type: answer only. 1641

Essex Record Office; Reference: D/DMh T174; Scope & content: Bond between Thomas Canham, Peter Marolios and Mathias Datselear of London, merchants, and Leonard Hamond the elder of London, for £3000 as part of marriage settlement for marriage of Thomas Canham and Mary Stead, widow and eldest daughter of Leonard Hamond. Inc. refs. to lands within 80 miles of City of London (no details) (For further ref. to Thomas Canham see D/DMh T45); Date: 1653

C 7/484/9 Short title: Beane v Willoughby. Plaintiffs: Humphrey Beane and John Canham. Defendants: George Willoughby and another. Place or subject: money, Middlesex. Document type: bill, plea and demurrer. 1671

C 8/294/21 Short title: Jeffery v Beane. Plaintiffs: Robert Jeffery. Defendants: Humphrey Beane, Thomas Canham and John Canham. Subject: money, Middlesex. Document type: answer only. 1674

C 6/213/21 Short title: Canham v Bellamy. Plaintiffs: John Canham. Defendants: William Bellamy. Subject: money matters. Document type: demurrer. 1674

C 5/82/92 Short title: Datcheler v Canham. Plaintiffs: Mary Datcheler widow. Defendants: Thomas Canham, Ambrose Canham and John Canham. Subject: money matters, Surrey. Document type: bill, answer. SFP. 1686

PROB 11/433/325 Will of Thomas Canham, Merchant of London 05 August 1696



Josias Clarke


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John Cradock


A 'John Cradocke, merchant tailor, Saint Mary at Hill, London, is listed in a Civil War Horse List of 1642.[83]



Peter Ducane (alt. Du Quesne)


Peter Ducane (alt. Du Quesne) (b. 1609; m. Jane Maurois; d. 1671). Probably a dyer (and merchant). Listed as 'Peter Duquesne, merchant' in a Civil War Horse List of 1642.[84] Son of John Du Quesne (b.?, London; m. 1599, Sarah de Francqueville; d. 1612). Grandson of Peter Du Quesne of Canterbury and later London, who departed Flanders in C16th.

Appears in 1666 hearth tax returns living at Saint Pancras Soper Lane, Pancras Lane The South Syde, 14 hearths, 1666.[85] Peter Ducane's house and warehouse appear to have been at plot 15A, Saint Pancras Soper Lane. D.J. Keene and Vanessa Harding (1987) identify note the assignment of the lease for this property in 1650 to Peter Ducane. They suggest that Dicane may already have inhabited the house and certainly lived there later. "Ducane wished to take into his house the rooms over his warehouse which were let to the tenant of 14, and it was agreed that he should have a lease of the chamber and 2 studies there for a term of 11 years from 1655 at 10s. rent and for a fine of £30." When renegotiating the lease in 1662, the rooms of the house were enumerated: "The hospital's viewers valued the property at £81. 6s. 8d. a year and enumerated the rooms in the house. Some of the rooms appear to have changed their form or function since 1635, and the following were described: 2 cellars; 3 large warehouses with a counting house; a washhouse; 2 yards paved with free stone; a kitchen paved with freestone; a room or entry with 2 butteries; a parlour with a buttery in it; a 'large and fair' dining room; a little garden; 3 large rooms over the parlour; over the kitchen a gallery with a pair of leads, 2 closets, and a counting house; the leads may have been on the floor above); over the warehouse, 2 chambers each with a closet; on the second floor were a chamber and closet over the great chamber and next to it a room with 5 garrets."[86]

Buried in parish church of Saint Pancras Soper Lane, though his will describes him as "of Saint Andrew Undershaft, London". Family links to Little Coggeshill, Essex, in early & mid-C17th.

Other primary sources

PROB 11/120/201 Will of John Du Quesne 04 September 1612

PROB 11/152/578 Will of Peter Du Quesne of Saint Olave Southwark, Surrey 08 November 1627

PROB 11/158/500 Will of James Du Quesne, Merchant of London 26 November 1630

C 10/128/26 Byrkym, Letton, Ducane, Moresoe, Lethulier v. Morehouse, Rowland: Middx 1667

PROB 4/2499 ?du Quesne, Peter, of St Andrew Undershaft, London 1671 27 Nov.

PROB 11/337/157 Will of Peter Dequesne or Duquesne of City of London 01 September 1671

PROB 11/338/334 Will of Peter Du Cane alias Du Quesne, Dyer of Saint Pancras, Middlesex 13 March 1672
PROB 11/338/340 Will of Peter Du Cane alias Du Quesne, Dyer of Saint Pancras, Middlesex

PROB 11/341/488 Will of Jane Ducane alias Duquesne of London 16 April 1673 13 March 1672

London Metropolitan Archives, E/DCA/251 Acknowledgement by 1 of payment for mortgages, to use of 2. Description: 1. Peter Du Cane, James Du Cane, London, merchants 2. John Stock, cit. and dyer, London. Messuages, "The Dolphin"; "The Half Moon" and "The White Sine" in Houndsditch, all in St. Botolph without Bishopsgate, London. 1673/74.

Lambeth Palace Library. VH 101/45. Ducane alias Du Quesne (Jane), of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, London. 1674

C 8/239/21 Short title: Houblon v Harrison. Plaintiffs: Isaac Houblon and Anthony Founteyne. Defendants: Edmund Harrison, Peter Houblon, John Meade, William Carbonell, Daniel Mercer, James Ducane, merchants of London and others. Subject: property in policy of assurance, London. Document type: bill and answer. 1679.



Robart Garland


A 'Robert Garland' is listed in a Civil War Horse List of 1642.[87]

[ADD DATA]



Edward Gittings/Gettings


Possibly a painter stainer. However, an 'Edward Gittins, merchant, Aldemanbury, London' is listed in a Civil War Hose List of 1642.[88]



Edward Harrington


[ADD DATA]



Isaac Jurin


Isaac Jurin (b. ?; d. ca. 1668). Possibly a London weaver. Possibly related to John Jurin, dyer, of Saint Pancras Lane, London, listed in a Civil War Horse List of 1642.[89]

Robert Brenner (1992) identifies a John Jurin alonside Lawrence Brinley as a colonial trader.[90]

Other primary sources

A true, and exact relation of the difference between Mr. Christopher Cisner, one of the pastors of the French Church in London, and others of the consistory thereof, and John Jurin senior, merchant, a member of the same church Wherein the treacherous dealings towards the French churches in England, and erroneous doctrine asserted by Mr. Cisner, and his obstinacie, either to maintein, or retract it, are discovered: as also, the unjust defending him therein by that consistory, and their irregular proceedings against Mr. Jurin, are palpably objected to publique consideration. For the vindication of the said Mr. Jurin. By publique licence.
Jurin, John., D'Oneau, John., Cisner, Christopher.
London: printed by William Bentley, 1657.[91]

PROB 11/327/335 Will of Isaac Jurin of Saint Botolph without Bishopgate London, City of London 16 June 1668
PROB 11/348/353 Will of John Jurin, Merchant of Saint Michael Island of Barbados, West Indies 20 August 1675
PROB 11/364/122 Will of John Jurin, Dyer of London 12 October 1680

TS 12/98 Freedom of the city of London: John Jurin, son of John Jurin, citizen and dyer 1658 Oct 21



ffrancis Lenthall


ffrancis Lenthall (b. ?; d. ?). London merchant. Youngest son of William Lenthall Esquire, of Lachford, Oxfordshire, and ffrances Southwell, daughter of Thomas Southwell Esquire, of Norfolk. Older brothers were Sir John Lenthall (b. ?; d. ca. 1669), William Lenthall of Lincolns Inn and Thomas Lenthalll (b. ?; d. ca. 1679), London merchant. Dai Liu (1986) identifies Thomas Lenthall and Francis Lenthall as living in the parish of Saint Mary at Hill.[92] Indeed, T.C. Dale (1931) lists a 'Mr. Lentahall' in the rental returns for Saint Mary at Hill, May 24, 1638.[93] and Thomas Lenthall Esquire appears in the 1666 hearth taxes for Saint Mary Hill west side, with a listing of 12 hearths.[94]

In the mid-1640s Nathan Wright was explicitly described in an ordinance before the House of Lords as a "Spanish merchant." Others so described in the same ordinance included "Mr. Lentall," whose name was adjacent to Wright's.[95] 'Mr Lentall' may have been the merchant Francis Lenthall, with whom Wright lent a substantial sum to parliament for the defence of the Devon ports. In September 1644 Wright, together with fellow London merchants Francis Lentall (alias Lenthall), and George Henly, lent £5,000 "for the defence of Plymouth, Poole, and Lyme Regis."[96]

HCA references

'Wright and Company owners of the ffriendship (Barnaby Holding master) against Lenthall and others', February 1655[97]

'Wright and Company against Lenthall and Nutt...Examined on an allegation given in and admitted on the behalfe of ffrancis Lenthall the yonger and George Nutt', March 1656[98]

Other primary sources

C33/181, p. 146v, 163v, (T1642) 740v bis. Plaintiff: Geoffrey Howland; Francis Lenthall; et al. Defendant: Christopher Vivian; and Gabriel Bonner; et al[99]

C33/181, p. 124r, 160r, (E1642) 517v. Plaintiff: George, Lord Goring; John Jacob, knight; Francis Lenthall; Geoffrey Howland; Ambrose Bromskill, armiger; Arthur Tench; et al Defendant: John Southwood[100]

HL/PO/JO/10/1/202 17 March 1646 -- Petition of Thomas Lenthall, Francis Lenthall and John Marston, merchants.
Annexed:
3 Petition of Thomas and Francis Lenthall, praying that they may be left to their course at law (Undated.)
4 Petition of Thomas Lenthall, Francis Lenthall, and John Marston, to the same effect as preceding. (Undated.)

C 9/7/185 Short title: Stevenson v Warcup. Plaintiffs: Thomas Stevenson. Defendants: Samuel Warcup, William Gore, Thomas Lenthall and Francis Lenthall. Subject: property in Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire. Document type: bill and answer. 1651

PROB 11/286/79 Will of Francis Lenthall of Saint Andrew Holborn, Middlesex 07 January 1659

SP 89/5/59 Folio 85: Petition of the merchants trading to Portugal and those residing at Lisbon, asking for the appointment of Francis Lenthall as Consul General at Lisbon, in place of Thomas Maynard, who had been appointed by Cromwell, and Francis Holbech, who was a Roman Catholic. Date and place: [? 1662] [London ? Lisbon ?]. With over 50 autograph signatures

PROB 11/330/87 Will of Sir John Lenthall of Southwark, Surrey 22 May 1669
PROB 11/334/321 Will of Thomas Lenthall of Saint George Southwark, Surrey 18 November 1670
PROB 11/344/88 Will of Thomas Lenthall of Hatton Garden London 23 January 1674
PROB 11/360/610 Will of Thomas Lenthall, Fishmonger and Merchant of London 18 September 1679

Other secondary sources

"LENTHALL, Thomas
Dep Billingsgate, 1660-74 St Mary at Hill, 1638, 1679 (1) FISH, fr, 1619, M, 1677 (2) d 13 Sep 1679, bur St Mary at Hill (2) Will PCC 118 King pr, 18 Sep 1679 f William Lenthall of Lachford, Oxon, m Frances Southwell of St Faiths, Norf, mar Anne, da of George Molle of Culworth, Northants (2) Salter, 1640, merchant, 1651, "keeping no outward shop", 1667 (3) EIC stock (4) Land Suss, Oxon, Ireland (4) Elder of 4th Classis of London Province (attended 19 meetings) (5) Commsr for Lieut, 1660 Da Anne mar (B) Sir Edward Bromfield Bt (2)

(1) Boyd 9831, VBk, St Mary at Hill, will (2) Boyd 9831 (3) MG et H, 2nd Ser, II, p 37, LVP, 1664, p 88, CRO, Fire Decrees, I, ff 1246-7 (4) Will (5) Harleian Society, vols xxxii-xxxiii, The Register-Booke of the Fourth Classis in the Province of London, 1646-59 (1953)"[101]



Laurens Loe


Possibly a barber surgeon, master of the Barber Surgeons in 1667.[102]



Thomas Muschamp


Thomas Muschamp (b. ?; d. ca. 1657). Probably a London grocer.

Other primary sources

"Die Jovis, 12 Januarii, 1642....Ordered, That the Treasurers and Receivers of the Adventurers Money for Ireland do forthwith pay, out of the said Monies, Thirty-six Pounds, to Mr. Thomas Muschamp, for Beef delivered in to the Stores at Cork, certified by the Commissary and the Lord Inchiquin."[103]

The will of John Peacock(e), grocer of London, written Jan 1650, proven March 1650, lists as sole executor Peacock(e)'s "wellbeloved friend Mr Thomas Muschamp of London merchant"[104]

PROB 11/262/401 Will of Thomas Muschamp, Grocer of London 25 February 1657

PROB 11/300/208 Will of Christopher Muschamp of Coleman Street, City of London 06 October 1660


William Pennoyer


William Pennoyer (b. 1603; m. 1637, Martha Josselyn; d. ca. 1671). Herefordshire born clothworker and merchant. Elected master of the Clothworker's Company, 1657. Subscriber to the Smirna Venture Joint Stock in the mid-1650s, trading to Surat. Trading interests in cloth, tobacco, sugar and munitions.[105]

According to a secondary source, William Pennoyer was born in Haye-on-Wye, Herefordshire, son of a glovemaker, who subsequently changed his name from Butler to Pennoyer. The same source states that William Pennoyer started, but did not complete, an apprenticeship in Bristol as a vintner, and subsequently, in 1620, was apprenticed to a London clothmaker, and elected a liveryman of the Clothmakers in 1639.[106]

Resident in Saint Helen Bishopsgate and described as a merchant, in a Civil War Horse List of 1642[107]

'Mr. Pennoye', presumably William Pennoyer, though alternatively Samuel Pennoyer, was a significant buyer of silk from the English East India Company already in 1637. He requested allowance for defective and cut silk found in twenty bales he had bought from the Company, but his request was turned down “as in his contract the silk was described as wet and defective.”

Robert Brenner has portrayed William Pennoyer, and his brother Sammuel Pennoyer, as so-called "New Merchants." He has stressed Pennoyer's supposedly non-establishment, relatively poor family background, and has emphasised Pennoyer's links with Maurice Thompson. In truth, documentation on William Pennoyer's family background is relatively poor. Moreover, arguably William Pennoyer's commercial career was relatively unusual.

HCA references

'A busines of Examination of witnesses on the part and behalfe of Maurice Thompson Esquires William Thompson one of the Aldermen of the Citty of London Richard Hill one of the Aldermen of the City of London William Pennoyer Nehemiah Browne Job Throgmorton Michaell Davison and John Jolliff all English merchants and subiects of this Commonwealth freighters of the shipp the Olive Branch of London against the Governours and company of the Dutch Merchants tradeing to the East Indies in particular and all others in generall takeing upon them to iustifie the hindering of the sayd shipp the Olive Branch from goeing in to Bantam in the East Indies there to take in her ladeing', November 1658[108]

Other primary sources

PROB 11/240 Alchin 357-409 Will of Samuell Penoyer, Merchant of London 12 May 1654[109]

C 10/74/1 Roger Andrewes, John Connis, William Pennoyer, Francis Dashwood and Edward Crispe v Frederick Skinner: money matters, Middx. 1664

C 6/185/8 Short title: Baker v Beresford. Plaintiffs: Margaret Baker widow. Defendants: Rowland Beresford, William Penoyer, Josias Dewie, George Boreman and Sigismund Trafford. Subject: property in Hackney, and Leyton, Middlesex. Document type: bill, answer, plea. SFP 1669

PROB 11/335 Duke 1 - 53 Will of William Pennoyer of London 13 February 1671[110]

PROB 11/344 Bunce 1-53 Will of Martha Pennoyer, Widow of London 29 July 1674[111]

PROB 11/346 Bunce 104-150 Sentence of Martha Pennoyer, Widow of Saint Mary Whitechapel, Middlesex 23 July 1674



Thomas Rich


Thomas Rich (b. ca. 1601; d. 1667). Vintner and merchant. Active in the wine importing trade in London. Traded in Eastern Mediterranean and East Indies. Committee of English East India Company.,, 1642-3, 1648-54. Created Baronet of Sunning, Berkshire, in 1661.

Born in Gloucestershire. Educated in London and at Wadham College, Oxford. Married (1) Barbara Morewood, daughter of Gilbert Morewood, grocer (2) Elizabeth Cockayne, daughter of William Cockayne, skinner.

Other primary sources

C 6/130/74 Short title: Fredericke v Barker. Plaintiffs: John Fredericke, Thomas Jennings, Peter Vandepute, Gilbert Keate, Jonathan Keate and Thomas Rich. Defendants: William Barker, Isaac Barton and Elizabeth Barton his wife. Subject: money matters, Middlesex.Document type: bill, answer. 1655
C 10/82/2 Sir Robert Abdy baronet, Sir Thomas Rich baronet, Sir James Madiford baronet, Sir Joseph Ash baronet, Sir Thomas Bludworth knight and others v Sir George Oxenden knight, Sir Martin Noel knight, Thomas Atkins, Elizabeth Dallison and others: money matters, Middx. 1664

PROB 11/325 Carr 117-176 Will of Sir Thomas Rich of Sonning, Berkshire 20 November 1667[112]



George Robinson


Need to clarify if the George Robinson of the 1641 petition is the same man as the former servant of Martin Noell, mentioned in a late 1650s HCA record and in Martin Noell's will of 1665.

HCA references

George Robinson was a former servant of Martin Noell. Edward Bradbourne (b. ca. 1637, d. ?), former servant of Martin Noell, was examined in a High Court of Admiralty case, ?June 1656, on behalf of George Robinson, a former servant of Martin Noell.[113]

Other primary sources

Sir Martin Noell, London merchant, in his will of 1665, gave George Robinson commercial direction over his Barbados plantation until his children were adult. ("it is my order and desire That Mr George Robinson should have the direction correspondence and supplying of the said Plantacion from tyyme to tyme dureing their minorities of my said children And to give an account from tyme to tyme of all his proceedings therein." Roninson was also made one of three executors ("my two sonnes Martin Noell & Thomas Noell and my loveing friend M:r George Robinson to be executors of this my last will and testament")[114]

Dame Elizabeth Noell, widow of Martin Noell, made George Robinson one of her four executors in 1665 ("George Blake Martin Noell Tho: Noell and Geo: Robinson Executors of this my last will"[115]



Richard Shute


Richard Shute (b. ?; d. ca. 1660). London haberdasher and merchant. Also recorded as a London draper.[116] Resident in parish of Saint Katherine Cree Church in 1645, and Served on the vestry of Saint Katherine Cree Church.[117] Listed as "Mr Richard Shute, of Cree Church" against the Eighth Classis in a list of persons ordained to be triers and judges of the integrity and ability of such as to be chosen elders in the Twlve Classis within the Province of London, September 1645.[118]

Identified by Aldred P. Beaven (1908) as a haberdasher, and one of three nominators of Robert Tichborne, skinner in July 1649 as alderman for Farringdon Ward within.[119]

Robert Brenner (1993) identifies several examples of Richard Shute in a commercial relationship with Gilbert Morewood, a London grocer. In 1648, Samuel Vassall, Richard Shute, Roger Vivian, Gibvert Morewood and Richard Cranley, in trade to Brazil with licence from the King of Portugal as owners of the ship the Concord.[120]. In 1649, John Dethick, Richard Shute and Gilbert Morewood, as owners of the ship the Mayflower and possibly also traders to Guinea.[121]

Recorded in 1650 in the Court Minutes of the English East India Company as a subscriber to the United Joint Stock of the English East India Company.[122] The same volume of Court Minutes from the early 1650s, show Richard Shute to be a major purchaser of indigo from and debtor of the English East India Company as "Mr Shute, Mr Brett and Company.

HCA references

"To the Interrogatories administred on the behalfe of Mr Gilbert Morewood and Mr Richard Shute", XXXX[123]
- Concerns the ship the Lucretia alias the Elizabeth'

"On the behalfe of James Oiles Richard Shute Peter Bulteele and others", August 1651[124]
- Concerns ship named the Eagle trading from London to Guinea to Barbados
- [Note James Oyles was a member of the English East India Company, and was associated with Richard Shute in 1650 in a substantial debt to the Company for indigo]

"The personall answeares of John Moore made to the posicons of a libell given in against him on the behalfe of Jeremie Crowe"
- John Moore was master of the ship the Jeremie between 1646 and 1650. In this time he made voyages to Newfoundland and Mallaga, to [?XX] and Mallaga, and as a ship of war, and sailed to Barcelona, Marseilles, Barbary and back to Marseilles. Princpal owners of the ship were Gilbert Morewood, Richard Shute and Daniel Bright.[125]

"On the behalfe of John Cap[?a] and others touching the losse of the shipp Mathew and John of [XXXX] in a businesse of assurance", August 1651[126]
- Concerns the Mathew and John (master Edward Arlibeere), seized by Jersey men of war in early 1651, en route from the Canaries to London off the Scilly Isles
- 'To the crosse interrogatories on the behalfe of Richard Shute and ffrancis Sayon assurers' [asssurers of the Mathew and John, though not clear whether of ship or goods or both][127]

'A busines of ensurance touching certaine losses of and in the shipp called the Rebecca of London promoted by Nathaniell Andrewes and Adam Jennings merchants against Richard Shute and Nicholas Skinner', August 1655[128]
- Mentions bill of sale, dated September 1647, for the ship the Rebecca of London by Maurice Thompson to Adam Jennings

Other primary sources

PROB 11/118/530 Will of Richard Shute of Saint Dunstan in the West, City of London 18 December 1611

G3144 Bargain and sale of lands at Talland, Plynt Killigarth. John, Earle of Bathe and Lady Jane, his wife to Richard Shute of London, draper. John Lawrence, of London, merchant
3 seals 2 signatures. 06 Jun 1651[129]

Roll/case no: C 78/478, no. 6 John Bland v Benjamin Trynyman; Edward Walker; Gifford Bale; Richard Shute; Peter Jones; Benjamin Moorewood; Subject matter: Accounts re transport of chests of 'cockendale' (mistranscription of 'cochineale'). 24 July 1652[130]
- Case in the Court of Chancery brought by John Bland (complainant) against John Tryniman or Triniman, Edward Walker, Giford Beale, Richard Shute, Peter Jones and Benjamin Moorewood (defendants). John Bland alleged that William Bland, the complainant's brother and factor, in September or October 1648, loaded seven chests of cochineale on board the Peregrine of London (master: John Triniman), worth £1100 and upwards, to be brought to London. The defendants Gifford Bale, Richard Shute, Peter Jones and Gilbert Moorewood ("since deceased") "being merchant did assure to the defendant Benjamin Triniman by their severall subscriptions to a pollicie of assurance bearing date the tenth day of July in the yeare of our Lord one thousand six hundred forty nine the severall summes to the pollicy by them subscribed amounting to the summe of sixe hundred pounds". The amounts were: Gifford Bale , £100; Richard Shute, £200; Peter Jones, £100; Gilbert Moorewood, £200. The ship miscarried and was cast away. The complainant John Bland had a series of attachments issued to John Triniman for the sums owing from the assurers. The complainant alleges that the assurers combined to resist payment of the attached debts.

PROB 11/300/394 Will of Richard Shute, Merchant of London 25 October 1660

PROB 11/356/248 Will of Thomas Shute, Clothier of Monckton Combe, Somerset 28 February 1678

PROB 11/367/357 Will of Zachary Shute, Linen Draper of Hornsey, Middlesex 29 August 1681

PROB 11/367/364 Will of Benjamin Shute, Dyer of London 30 August 1681

PROB 11/381/580 Will of Samuel Shute of Cornhill, City of London 15 December 1685

PROB 11/385/433 Will of Joseph Shute, Linen Draper of Cornhill, City of London 20 December 1686



Mathew Skynner


[ADD DATA]



John Stals


[ADD DATA]



Thomas Stone


Probably Thomas Stone (b. 1580, Croston, Lancashire; d. ca. 1651). Haberdasher. Probably the second son of Richard Stone (b. ?; d. ca. 1606), Bretherton, Lancashire, husbandman. His younger brother, Andrew Stone, was a merchant in Amsterdam in 1613.[131]

A Thomas Stone at the White Horse in Catteaton Streete, haberdasher, is listed in a Civil War Horse List of November 1642 in London. "Thomas Stone att the White horse in Catteaton streete haberdasher, listed one browne black gelding with a starr furnished with a Carabine, a Case of pistolls, a buffe Coate and a sword valued att 22. 00. 00"[132]

Robert Brenner (1992) provides extensive detail on the haberdasher Thomas Stone, emphasising his importance in pre-civil war tobacco trade in the 1620s and 1630s from Virginia and Bermuda, and his close relationship with Maurice Thomson. He identifies Thomas Stone as the fourth son (not the second son), of a Carhouse, Lancaster family. He states that he was apprenticed in London to the haberdashers and was active in retail trade. Specifically, Brenner states he operated a shop in Cateaton Street, London, and speculates that Stone entered the tobacco and colonial provisioning trade as an extension of his domestic business activity.

Brenner notes that Stone did not join the Merchant Adventurers, probably because he wished to retain his retail activities, and interloped, "exporting cloth and importing a variety of goods from several Low Country ports". Brenner states that by 1627 Maurice Thomson and Stone were partners, reexporting tobacco to Middleburgh, Flushing, and Amsterdam. Brenner suggests that Thomas Stone's nephew, William Stone, operated a tobacco plantation for Thomas Stone in Accomac, Virginia.[133]

Brenner provides detail of a syndicate formed by William Tucker, Maurice Thomson and Thomas Stone from 1632 to 1635, which was granted the sole right for three years to market the Virginian tobacco crop.[134] Citing London Port Book for Imports data for 1633 and 1634, Brenner states that in 1634, Thomas Stone imported about 46,000 pounds of tobacco, "about 10% of the entire volume imported" by the syndicate.[135]

Other primary sources

PROB 11/216/126 Will of Thomas Stone, Haberdasher of London 03 April 1651



Maurice Thomson


London merchant. Brother of William Thomson.

A 'Moris Tompson, merchant, Thames Street, London' is identified in a Civil War Horse List of 1642.[136]
22. 00. 00



William Thomson


London merchant. Brother of Maurice Thomson. Dai Liu (1986) identifies William Thompson as living in the parish of Saint Stephen Walbrook.[137]

A 'William Tompson of Bucklesbury' is identified in a Civil War Horse List in October 1642 together with 'Samuell Warner'; "Samuell Warner and William Tompson of Bucklersbury listed one white gray gelding, furnished with a Carabine, a Case of pistolls, a buffe Coate and a sword valued att 22.00.0".[138]



Samuel Warner


A London grocer, trading in tobacco with Virginia. Dai Liu (1986) identifies Samuel Warner as living in the parish of Saint Stephen Walbrook.[139]

Robert Brenner (1992) identifies Samuel Warner as the father-in-law of William Thomson (Maurice Thomson's brother), and brother of the merchant John Warner.[140] Brenner describes Samuel Warner as a "Virginian merchant" and a "tobacco merchant", who traded with his brother, John Warner.[141]

A 'William Tompson of Bucklesbury' is identified in a Civil War Horse List in October 1642 together with 'Samuell Warner'; "Samuell Warner and William Tompson of Bucklersbury listed one white gray gelding, furnished with a Carabine, a Case of pistolls, a buffe Coate and a sword valued att 22.00.0".[142]

Samuel Warner, grocer, sworn in as alderman of Coleman Street ward, Jan. 10, 1643.[143]



Francis Webbe


Possibly a dyer.

Other primary sources

PROB 11/361/237 Will of Francis Webb, Dyer of Saint Thomas Southwark, Surrey 12 November 1679



Nathaniel Withers


Nathaniel Withers (b. ?; d. ca. 1669). Merchant taylor. Brother-in-law of the London merchant, Sir Samuel Mico, through his marriage to Hesther (alias Esther) Mico.[144]

Nathaniel was born in the parish of St. Dunstan in the East, London, to father, William Withers, who was from Menedownes, Hampshire and to mother, Jane Webb, from Henley-on-Thames, Surrey.[145] In 1633 he was recorded as resident in Tower Ward, described as a London merchant, most probably in the parish of St. Dunstan in the East, where he was recorded in 1638 as still an inhabitant, paying a relatively high rental of £20.[146] However, he was living in the parish of St. Giles (without) Cripplegate at his death in 1669, his dwelling in Goat Alley having been rated at a relatively modest eight hearths three years earlier.[147]

He rose to senior roles in the company of merchant taylors in the 1650s and 1660s, serving in 1656 as second warden, and in 1666, the year of the London fire, as master.[148]

His surviving inventory provides the impression of a modestly wealthy merchant [TBC], though his will lists a remarkable range of London tenaments and houses whose rentals he collected.[149] His will also lists a number of outstanding bonds owing to him, specifying bonds with the brewer William Dashwood,[150] with a M:r Munns and with a M:r ?Goldum. Nathaniel named William Dashwood one of his overseers, together with a Mr. John Warner and a Mr. Edward Munns (possibly he of the outstanding bond). The John Warner named as overseer may himself have been a merchant taylor, also of Saint Giles without Cripplegate, who died the following year.[151]

Records of his commercial activities are patchy. No business papers nor partnership accounts survive. However, the voyage accounts of a 1637 joint stock venture survive of a London to Virginia bound ship, in which Nathaniel Withers owned one eighth of the shares, and there are a number of letters of commercial advice directed to him in London from Alicante, Spain, in the 1646-1652 period.[152] In addition there are a number of possible court cases, in the High Court of Admiralty and in the Court of Chancery, dating from 1637, 1650 and 1654, which provide insights into his commercial activities.[153] Synthesising the various sources results in a partial impression of Nathaniel Withers commercial strategies and business approach from the later 1630s until his death in 1669.

There is some weak evidence of trading activities linking Nathaniel Withers and his brother-in-law Samuel Mico. In a record of the House of Commons in 1651 Samuel Mico mentioned that a small part of a shipment of raisins, anniseeds, almonds, figs, and some wines, etc. from Aaron Mico his Alicant factor to him in London was for the "Accompt of his Brother-in-Law, Nathaniel Wythers, an English Merchant now beyond the Seas."[154]

Nathaniel Withers combined trade with the Mediterranean coast of Spain (and Italy) with the tobacco trade to Virginia. There is no evidence of involvement in the triangular London to Guinea to Barbados trade in general goods, slaves, and sugar. Unlike some of his fellow merchants involved in the Spanish trade, such as Thomas Boone and Samuel Mico, he had no close family connection to the south-west England clothier industry. From the limited evidence available, he appears to have exported XXXX to Spain, and to have sourced wine, and presumably other goods, from Spain to export to Virginia, in return for tobacco, which he sold in London and re-exported to Spain.

Other primary sources

PROB 11/331/91 Will of Nathanaell Withers, Merchant Tailor of London 15 September 1669[155]

PROB 4/8600 Inventory of Nathaniel Withers the elder, 1669[156]



John Worsam


Possibly a clothworker. May have moved from London to Barbados by 1660. Alternatively a relation may have moved.

Other primary sources

Surrey History Centre, G85/14/2 Admission as Freeman of London of John Worsam, son of Richard, who was apprenticed to John Thierry, clothworker 22 Sep 1638

PROB 11/182/189 Will of John Godscall, Dyer of Saint Olave Southwark, Surrey 11 February 1640

C 8/81/114 Short title: Garland v Kendall. Plaintiffs: Robert Garland, Joas Godscall, Peter Jones, Gilbert Morewood and William Fisher. Defendants: Thomas Kendall, John Colleton, Nicholas Gold and Hugh Sowden. Subject: money, Middlesex. Document type: bill and two answers. 1646

"[1654] 26 Jul. William Williams of London, draper, aged 22, deposes that on 28 February 1650 John Worsam of London, merchant, Richard Worsam of London, weaver, and Thomas Applethwaite of London, merchant, signed a financial obligation to George Nash, citizen and merchant tailor of London, who has appointed Daniel Searle, Governor of Barbados, as his attorney (MCD 5)."[157]

C 10/21/25 Isaac Barton and Elizabeth Godscall v Abraham Cullen, William Rushout, Elizabeth Rushout widow and John Casyer: personal estate of John Godscall, deceased, of the parish of St Olave, Southwark, Surrey. 1654

"On 25 October 1655, Henry Simons of St. Olave, Southwark, Surrey, citizen and tallow chandler of London, aged 53, deposed that on 20 August 1641, Richard Worsam, citizen and weaver of London, and his son John Worsam of London, merchant, signed a financial obligation to Mathew Wilton, citizen and tallow chandler of London, who had appointed John Fryer and William Fryer of Barbados, merchants, as his attornies. (Lord Mayor's Court of London, 6)."[158]

PROB 11/258/465 Will of James Godscall, Merchant of London of Saint James Colchester, Essex 23 October 1656

"[1658] 6 March. John Godscall of London , merchant, son and sole executor of John Godscall of Colchester, Essex, merchant deceased, deposed that on 5 February 1636 Thomas Peade of London, merchant, and on 6 August 1636 John Worsam and Thomas Peade of London, merchants, signed financial obligations to his father, and on 30 October 1652 Richard Worsam, citizen and weaver of London, made out an indenture to his son John Worsam, citizen and clothworker of London. John Leak of Barbados, Merchant, appointed attorney. (MCD 8)."[159]

Surrey History Centre LM/COR/6/48 Letter from Mr John Godschall to his nephew Mr Richard Worsam [otherwise Warsam], merchant at Mrs Bretton's house in Broad Street, London. - Godschall seeks confirmation of receipt of a bill of exchange to the value of £400 and made payable to his 'Uncle Basil'and endorsed as payable to him. 30 Oct 1679

C 105/34 Original will of John Worsam: Barbados NOTE - Bundle 16 1680

PROB 11/362/236 Will of Thomas Peade, Haberdasher of London 13 February 1680

PROB 11/365/428 Will of Richard Worsam, Merchant of London 30 September 1681

PROB 11/371/576 Sentence of Richard Worsam of Saint Benet Finch, City of London 16 February 1683

C 7/368/13 Short title: Worsam v Godschall. Plaintiffs: Richard Worsam and Elizabeth Worsam. Defendants: John Godschall. Place or subject: personal estate of Richard Worsam, Middlesex. 1692.

Document type: answer only



Potential primary sources


Derbyshire Record Office D3155/C1771 List of those admitted in Hamburg into the freedom of the fellowship of Merchant Adventurers of England, 1621-1741. Compiled by Frederick Hagedorn, secretary to the company n.d.

SP 46/96/fo109-112 Petition to Parliament of the Merchant Adventurers [in the Drapery Trade] asking for a dispensation in respect of goods sent by their merchants at Hamburg in two Dutch vessels before they knew of the Navigation Act of 9 Oct. 1651 Enclosed: Certificate from the Hamburg Fellowship as to the above, 18 Nov. 1651. Two certificates from the Senate of Hamburg about the same matter, 8 Dec. 1651 Latin. [1651/2 jan.]

SP 82/7/f190 William Atwood, Treasurer of Merchant Adventurers, to Council of State 1650 May 28

SP 82/8/f27 Proposals of certain Merchant Adventurers to Council of State (date is date of presentation) 1650 July 29

SP 82/8/f64 Declaration of Merchant Adventurers at Hamburg 1650 Oct 4 1651 Apr 22

SP 82/8/f109 Company of Merchant Adventurers at Hamburg to Lord President of Council of State

SP 82/9/f68 Merchant Adventurers: proposals about trade on the Elbe, and another copy 1653 May 3

SP 82/9/f180 Petition of Merchant Adventurers to Council of State [?1653]

SP 82/11/206 Folio 206: Extract from the assembly and court minutes of the English merchant adventurers at Hamburg. 1672 July 1/10
- mentions Swann, Robert Palmer, Towse, Baber, Cambridge, Pococke, Shafto, Oakeley and James Banckes

SP 84/159/107 Folio 224: Magistrates of Dordrecht to the Merchant Adventurers. 1654 Aug 14/24



Potential secondary sources


John Roberts Boyle, Frederick Walter Dendy, Extracts from the records of the Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-Upon_Tyne, vol. 2 (Durham, 1899)[160]

Heinrich Hitzigrath, Die Kompagnie der Merchants Adventurers und die Englische Kirchengemeinde in Hamburg, 1611-1835 (Hamburg, 1904)[161]
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  152. For tobacco, see Michael Tepper (ed.), New World immigrants: a consolidation of ship passenger lists and associated data from periodical literature, vol. 1 (XXXX, Reprint 1988), pp. 96-108; For Alicante activities see, for example, [380] London. Nathaniel Withers (Alicante, 18-7-1649)' in José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz, Perry Gauci, Mercaderes ingleses en Alicante en el siglo XVII: estudio y edición de la correspondencia comercial de Richard Houncell & Co (Alicante, 2008), pp. 231-? CHECK
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