Tools: Slavery

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Tools: Slavery



Editorial history

Created 04/05/2015 by CSG






Ships & Timeline



Year to be established


1636

The Saint Andrewe

- set out from London pnmvoyage to "Binney and Ginney"[1]
- Master: George Ireland, 40 year old mariner from Wapping
- Fleming bui=t ship


1647


The Benjamin[2]

Planned voyage from London to Guinea to Barbados, but diverted to Spanish West Indies

The Consent[3]

Master: Godfrey Jones (died without returning to England)

Voyage from London to Gambo (presumably Gambia) on the Guinea coast, where took on ca. 100 negro slaves, and then to Barabdos to take on water and then to Margaritta, but cast away and lost on way there. Departed Gravesend in September or October 1647; arrived Guinea three months later and stayed three months, so set off for Barbados ca. February or March 1648. Freighters included London merchants Robert Oxwick William Weilday and John Jefferyes.[4]

The Guift[5]

Voyage from Nantes to New England, Bilboa and back to Nantes; followed by a voyage from Nantes to Civita Vechia; followed by a voyage to New England, Barbados and Guinny (where took on board 139 negro slaves)

The Mayflower[6]

Planned voyage from London to Guinea to Barbados, but diverted to Spanish West Indies

The Peter[7]

Planned voyage from London to Guinea to Barbados, but diverted to Spanish West Indies


1648




1649


Nostra Seignora de Rosario

Ship was owned by a Lisbon born Portuguese named Gonsalo da Gamboa. Arrived in Bahia, Brasil, in 1649 with 300 negro slaves[8] Laded a cargo of sugars and tobacco at Bahia, largely on account and adventure of Gonsalo da Gamboa. The ship was seized by an English man of war on its return voyage to Lisbon and carried to England. The dispute in the High Court of Admiralty over this rich prize continued into 1657, with Manoel Alvares, steward of the Portuguese ambassador, depositng on April 24th 1657 regarding the seizure of the ship.[9]

A two page account of the lading, its quantities, value and ownership has been preserved amongst miscellaneous papers from the High Court of Admiralty. It is dated December 2nd 1657 and was submitted by the proctor Suckley as part of Admiralty Court proceedings.[10]

The Royal Merchant

The Royal Merchant (Master: Henry Atkinson) sailed from Bristol to Guinea, intending to go from thence to Barbados and back to London or some other port in England.[11] On arriving at Barbados the agents or factors of the freighters Batson and Steele ordered the ship, with the master's consent, to return to Guinea on a second voyage, contrary to the agreement made in England.[12] The ship arrived the first time in Barbados on July 15th 1649. Owners and freighters of the Royal Merchant were Richard Batson, Laurence Steele, John Colleton and John Roberts.[13]


1650


The Arana Merchant

On Guinea coast in March 1650.[14]

The Mary Constant

On Guinea coast in March 1650.[15]

The Mary and John

The Mary and John (Master: ffrancis Hurdidge) was owned by Thomas Adams, Thomas Hollis Mr Hills, and Company merchants of London in the years 1648 to 1651. The ship was let to freight by her master at Lisbon in Portugal in March 1649 by licence of the King of Portugal to makke a voyage from Lisbon to Madera, thence to Angola and thence to Bahia in Brasil.[16] At Angola Hurdidge took on board "nine hundred and seventeene Negars besides Children for the accompt of Portugalls, by the Order of the sayd Governour and Officers of the King of Portugall, And also one hundred eighty four Negers and eighteene Children for accompt of the Owners of the sayd shipp and him her sayd master and Company and allso about four thousand Alquiers of salt which salt the sayd Governour forced him as aforesayd to accept in the stead of eight hundred millrees, all to be transported to Bahia"[17]


1651


The ffreindshipp[18]

- Roland Wilson, Maurice Thomson, John Wood and others, London merchants and "Adventurers upon the ioynt stock for the Coast of Guinney", hired and took to freight the ship the ffreindshipp from Henry Saint John, Nathaniel Goodlad and others
- Voyage to River of Gambra in Guinney
- Freighters by Charter Party were to pay all their costs and charges and to pay for "ware and tare of the hull" "100 per month, beginning September 1st 1651 and continuing for 8 months certaine and 12 months at most
- In addition, the abovenamed freighters were the owners and proprietors of two pinaces, the John (Master: Thomas Blackman) and theSupply (Master: Bartholomew Howard). Supply was of burthen of 80 tonnes, with 6 iron guns and cost and was worth £425-03-04; the John was of burthen of 60 tonnes, with 5 iron guns and cost and was worth £545-05-06
- Attached bill of lading for the Supply, dated December 9th 1651, states a lading of 1234 barrs of iron, 18 higsheads of ffrench spirits, 1 chest of beads, 1 case of christall, and 30 pairs of shackles[19]


1652


The Constant Ruth

The Constant Ruth (Master: Captain Hayman) laded stores in London in May 1652, prior to a voyage to Guinea and thence to Barbados, intending to return thence for London. Sailed from coast of Guinea on December 16th 1652[20];

The Hopewell[21]

The Hopewell (Master: Henry Powell) sailed from London to Guinea to Antego. Arrived in Antego October 14th 1652, and subsequently seized on October 30th 1652 on the coast of Antego by Prince Rupert.[22]

The Industry

The Industry (Master: James Cranidge) was in company of the Constant Ruth in their passage from the coast of Guinea to Barabados[23]

The Recovery

The Recovery (Master: ?] was an English ship of 300 tons burthen which sailed from London to Guinea, and then on to Barbados and to Antego. Admiralty Court witnesses stated that her original crew of thirty was much depleted by Antego, and that "when she came to Antego she had but about 18 or 19 men many of her Company being dead att Guiney and some stayd att Barbadoes"[24]


1653


The James

The James of London (Master: George [?Colden]). Departed London ca. mid-1653; sailed from London to "Ginney, Binney and parts and places thereabouts" and from thence to Barbados. Arrived at Barbados ca. July 1654.[25] Departed Barbados for London, but meeting bad weather near the Western Islands was forced through leakiness to stop at Passage in Ireland.[26]


1654


The Leopard[27]

The Leopard (Master: Cornelius ffredericke, who died at Saint Christofers and was replaced by Claus Tuneson). Ship belonging to the Duke of Courland, carried negro slaves from Guinea to Martinica in the West Indies. Departed Martinica for Amsterdam on September 16th 1654 (new style), where due to deliver foods to Hendrick Mumma [alt. Momma] as factor or deputy of the Duke of Courland, stopping off at Saint Christofers for about a month (departing October 16th 1654 new style). Later seized by English at Bristol, having put in there en route to Amsterdam due to storm damage.[28]


1655


The Anne

The Anne (Master: John Carey) departed London for Guinea in February 1655 with a lading which included copper bars, and arrived on the Guinea coast in June 1655.[29]

The ffreindship

The ffreindshipp of London (Master: Thomas Hyatt) departed London for Guinea and thence to Barbados and back to London on April 3rd 1655.[30]

The Justice

The Justice of Dover (Master John ffishbell) was hired at Barbados by John Nayler John Horne and company for a return trip from Barbados to Guinea.[31]

The Lady of Conquest

The Lady of Conquest (Master: John Rodrigues da Calderon) received a license from the Governour of Angola to carry slaves from Angola to Cartagena.[32]

The Peace

The Peace of Amsterdam (Master: Herman Barenson) was intended on a voyage from Amsterdam to Guinea and thence to the West Indies before returning to Amsterdam. She was seized by the English six leagues from Barbados with a lading aboard her of about two hundred and fifty negro slaves and a great quantity of elephants teeth, bound from Guinea for the West Indies.[33]

The Virgin Mary and All Saints

Virgin Mary and All Saints of Cartagena (Master: Diego de la Baton)[34]


1656


The Brotherhood

The Brotherhood of London (Master: XXX) was owned by Peter and Abraham Caullier. The ship was seized in February 1656 near Cape Lopez on the coast of Guinea by Captain Albert Cox in the ship the Cat or Gat frigate and Captain Jappon in a frigate called the Kater. She had on board a lading of ninety-four negro slaves and elephants teeth[35]

The ffortune

The ffortune (Master: George Paris) was seized off the Guinea coast by John Scroll in late July 1656. After fetching out the negro slaves on board the ffortune, Scroll's men set fire to the hull of the ship and destroyed it.[36]

The Lyon and the Providence

Owners of the ship were James Bridgeman, Thomas Preston and company. Some of the freighters were Alderman William Thomson and Maurice Thomson. The ship was intended for a voyage from London to Guinea, thence to the East Indies, thence to Danzig, and back to London.[37] The ship was seized by Captain John Crawle [alt. Scroll] off the Guinea coast, who commanded the Mary of Amsterdam and the Unicorne of Middleburg[38]

The Sarah

Owners of ship were Thomas Thompson Captaine Wildy and Companie Merchants of London. [CEHECK OWNERS ARE CORRECT] Freighter of the ship was Robert Lewellin, merchant of London. Planned voyage from London to "the parts of Guinney", thence to Barbados, and back to London.[39] Ship was laded at London in January 1656 with cargo of "Copper barres, iron, and [?bowdges]" to be transportedd to Guinea and bartered and disposed of "for Negroes to be thence in the said shipp carried and conveighed to Barbadoes or Virginia there to bee sould and disposed of for the proper accompt and benefitt of the said Robert Lewellin".[40]

The Sarah arrived on coast of Guinea on May 1st 1656, where 158 negro slaves were procured near Cape de Lopes. On August 2nd 1656 the Sarah was seized by two Dutch ships off the Guinea coasr, both uner the command of John Scroll, said to be a Dutchman of the United Provinces.[41]

There seems to have been a second ship named the Sarah. ("Humphrey Beane and companie also merchants of this citie were the true and Lawfull owners of the arlate shipp the Sarah whereof Arthur Perkins was master, as this deponent hath received from common and credible report touching the said proprietie; And saith this deponent hath alsoe credibly heard by and from the said Arthur Perkins that the arlate Robert Lewellin alsoe merchant of London had freighted the said shipp Sarah for or upon a voyage from London to Guiney and from thence to Barbadoes and Virginia and from thence to London, in which voyage the said shipp was surprized and seized as hereafter shall bee deduced."[42]

The Rapahannacke

Owners of the ship were John Jefferies, Thomas Colclough and others. The ship set out from London in December 1655 towards Guinea, and thence to Virginia, before returning to London. She carried a cargo of "Silesia linnens, callicoes, perpetuana's, iron, tinsell, scarlett cloath, bo[?w]dges and other goods", to be bartered away for negro slaves.[43]

The Rapahannacke was seized by two Dutch ships under the command of John Scroll in September 1656, whilst off the coast of Guinea and sailing towards Cape Lopes.[44] At the time of her seizure, the ship had 50 negro slaves on board her, who allegedly were worth between £20 and £30 each at the Barbados.[45]


1657


[ADD DATA]


1658


The Hopewell

The Hopewell (Master: Arthur Perkins) was laded in December 1657 in London for a voyage from London to the coast of Africa, intending then for XXXX. The ship arrived at Bengall on the coast of Africa in June 1658. However, the ship was seized by the Portuguese at Angola.[46]


1659


The Violet

The Violet (Master: Humphry Whyte) arrived at Virginia in April 1659 with a lading of negro slaves. According to the purser of the ship, her master "sold severall Negroes the said time for 35. li Sterling a peece and none under, and sold one for forty pounds, and the Merchant in Virginia who receaved most of the said Negroes brought thether in the said ship might have sold them all. after the rate of 35. li a peece one with an other, and saith that those Negroes were taken onboard the said ship Violet. at Calabar in Guiney, which Negroes hee saith are not soe good as Angola Negroes"[47]



1663


The Providence

The Providence (Master: Thomas Cheavers) sailed in the service of the Royal Africa Company from London to Guinea, arriving there in September 1663. Whilst lading negro slaves, the English ship was obstructed by a 400 ton 36 gun Dutch ship belonging to the Africa Company of the United Provinces, manned with ca. 100 men.[48]


  1. HCA 13/61 f.200r
  2. HCA 13/63 f.222v
  3. HCA 13/129 unfol. File_II0_PANA_P1100950-P1100952
  4. HCA 13/129 unfol. File_II0_PANA_P1100950-P1100952
  5. HCA 13/73 f.566v
  6. HCA 13/63 f.222v
  7. HCA 13/63 f.222v
  8. HCA 13/70 f.271v
  9. HCA 13/72 f.5r
  10. Valuation of goods and ship, Nostra Señiora da Rosario, submitted by Admiralty Court proctor Suckley, December 2nd 1657, HCA 15/6, un fol. See Manoel Alvares
  11. HCA 13/124 f.58v
  12. HCA 13/124 f.59r
  13. HCA 13/124 f.34v
  14. HCA 13/65 f.96r
  15. HCA 13/65 f.96r
  16. HCA 13/71 f.664r
  17. HCA 13/71 f.664v
  18. HCA 24/111 Folder_111_10_IMG_1685
  19. HCA 24/111 Folder_111_10_IMG_1694
  20. MRP:_HCA_15/6_Box_Two#Item:_Book_of_account_of_the_Constant_Ruth:_Date:_May_1652; HCA 13/70 f.165v
  21. HCA 13/68 f.55r
  22. HCA 13/68 f.55v
  23. HCA 13/70 f.165v
  24. HCA 13/68 57r
  25. HCA 13/70 f.348r
  26. HCA 13/70 f.348v
  27. HCA 13/70 f.308v
  28. HCA 13/70 f.41v
  29. HCA 13/71 f.140r
  30. HCA 13/72 f.334v
  31. HCA 13/71 f.398r
  32. HCA 13/72 f.67r
  33. HCA 13/70 f.410v
  34. HCA 13/72 f.67r
  35. HCA 13/71 f.608r
  36. HCA 13/72 f.29r
  37. HCA 13/71 f.619r
  38. HCA 13/71 f.619v
  39. HCA 13/71 f.634r
  40. HCA 13/71 f.634v
  41. HCA 13/71 f.634v
  42. HCA 13/71 f.628r
  43. HCA 13/71 f.632r
  44. HCA 13/71 f.632v
  45. HCA 13/71 f.633r
  46. HCA 13/73 f.500r
  47. HCA 13/73 f.540r
  48. http://www.marinelives.org/wiki/MRP:_HCA_23/19#Document_Number:_257:_Case:_XXXX:_Date:_XXXX HCA 23/19, Item: 257]